Expert System in Artificial Intelligence with Applications, Examples, Types

Expert System in Artificial Intelligence with Applications, Examples, Types

What is Expert System

Definition – Expert systems were introduced for solving complex problem in specific domain, because they are very interactive and trustable computer decision maker system that are used for both facts and heuristics for resolving complex decision issues.

Expert System

Expert system is very eminent research domain of Artificial Intelligence, and it is developed by researchers of Stanford University in Information Technology Department.

Expert system needs similar knowledge which is fetched from its knowledge base, and then interprets it according to user’s problem. All data is inserted in the knowledge base by domain experts who are expert in specific domain. This computer based applications are used by users who are non- experts in this area for obtaining information.

Click Here – Advantages and Disadvantages of Expert System

Types of Expert System

There are different types of expert system in artificial intelligence. Below  explain each one-

Rule Based Expert System

This expert system contains the group of rules, and these rules are straight forward, more expressive and flexible. In this system, knowledge is denominated like as set of rules that is theoretically otherwise understanding of Domain or subject.

Rule based ES has five components such as knowledge base, database, inference engine, explanation facility and user interface.

  • Knowledge base has entire knowledge of domain.
  • Database contains set of facts, and they help to match IF-THEN condition.
  • Inference engine delivers reasoning that helps to get chase target solution.
  • Explanation generates the answer to user that how to solve specific solution.
  • User interface allowing to user for getting interaction along with another component of ES.

Fuzzy Expert System

If, you want to express the expert knowledge which are used unclear and vague values such as “very tall”, “heavily reduced”, and more. Then we can implement the fuzzy set theory. Fuzzy base expert system is based on ideas which are expressed on the sliding scale, which allowing you to get different between members of the class from non-members.

Frame Based Expert System

This expert systems use the several frames for representing of knowledge.

A Frame acts as data structure that is contained the knowledge about specific objects otherwise concepts. Main objective of all frames are to capture and represent knowledge into frame based ES, and every frame contains its name and group of attributes.

Hybrid Expert System

Hybrid Expert System is combination of the advantages of rule based expert system, fuzzy expert system, and frame based expert system, then it is known as “Hybrid Expert System”.

But, this expert system is suitable for us or not, it is totally based on the two technologies, like as –

Neural Expert System and Neuro-fuzzy Expert System.

Neural Expert System

If, hybrid expert system contains the combination of neural network and rule based expert system, then it is known as the “Neural Expert System”.

Neural expert system contains the neural knowledge base instead of oldest knowledge base, and the knowledge is saved in the form of weight in neurons.

Neuro-fuzzy Expert System

If, we combine both expert systems neural network with fuzzy expert system, then it produces the higher powerful techniques for developing expert system like as “Neuro-fuzzy Expert System”.

Click Here – Components and Architecture of Expert System 

Development Phases of Expert system

There are five phases of processing of Expert system, such as-

Determine Problem Domain

  • Expert system must be bearing the problems which are solved by it.
  • Assign the domain expert for that ES.
  • Then, to build expert system that is cost- effective.

Design of System

  • To build the high degree of integration this is able for another system and database.
  • Realize how the concepts can represent the domain knowledge best.

To Make Prototype

  • To complete this phase, need knowledge expert who is able to do these tasks, such as-
  • Need domain knowledge from expert side.
  • And, then to represent this system into If-THEN-ELSE rules.

Testing and Rectify of the Prototype

  • End users allow testing the build prototypes of Expert system.

Build Fully Expert System

  • After testing, ensure that all interactions of expert system along with their elements of its environment, end users, all databases, and another system as well.
  • To keep all documents of the expert system assignment

To Keep Maintain of the Expert System

  • To update of ES continuously up to date.

Job Roles in Expert System Developing Process

Domain Expert– This person has full knowledge to build of Expert System.

Knowledge Engineer– He has technical knowledge that is able to integrate knowledge into computer system.

End User– He is individual person or team who can use the ES for obtaining advice by Expert.

 Human System Vs Expert System

Human System

  • Resources of human expert are costly.
  • Harder to move any data and files
  • It is unpredictable
  • Harder to keep document
  • It leads to Perishable nature.

Expert System

  • Expert system’s resources are inexpensive.
  • Easy to transfer
  • But, it is consistent
  • East to keep document
  • But, it leads to permanently nature.

Applications of Expert System

Click Here – Advantages and Disadvantages of Expert System

There applications are used in the different areas, such as agriculture, Medical and Healthcare, Education, Business, and Financial sector. Below explain each one

Uses of Expert System in Different Sectors

Agriculture Sector

Crop Management – This expert system allows farmer for taking good decision about growing specific crop, such as rice, wheat, cucumber etc.

Production Planning – It helps to make profitable cropping plans.

Pest Management – This expert system deals to control pest/weed which are dangerous for cops.

Diagnostic Systems – It helps to manage different types of disease and infections to several crops and plants.

Conservation System – This expert system allows conservation of soil or water as well as it is used for management in agriculture.

Process Control Systems – In this expert system, to implement various sensors for monitoring different types of agricultural activities.

Marketing Advisory Systems – This expert system delivers good advice to farmers to get profits in the agricultural production.

Medical and Healthcare Sector

MYCIN – It helps to diagnose infectious diseases in the blood and prescribing the appropriate antibiotics.

PUFF – To diagnose lung diseases

CADUCEUS – It is used for diagnosing of internal medicine.

Education Sector

Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) – This expert system deals with expert heuristics for solving problems. It delivers for students for learning, and it uses games, puzzles, colorful graphs and sounds to keep the student attentive until the end of session.

Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) – This expert system is used for learning students into pictorial form. It is totally based on the fuzzy logic, and it delivers best flexibility for representing information as well as responding to individual candidate as per need.

Intelligent Pascal Tutoring System (IPTS) – This expert system is able to keep a student database for identify individual performance and learning ability.

Use in Business

Marketing – It deal to large scale company to monitor discounts, quantity and other factors relating to sale.

Accounting – It allowing you to make financial decisions and credit authorization decisions.

Business – This allowing you to operate your business and trainees and evaluate their performance.

Financial Sector

  • Expert system is used in the financial sector for solving these problems, such as –
  • For financial analysis of firms
  • For analyzing the causes of successful or unsuccessful business development
  • For market analysis

Other Applications of Expert system are

  • Information management
  • Hospitals and medical facilities
  • Help desks management
  • Employee performance evaluation
  • Loan analysis
  • Virus detection
  • Useful for repair and maintenance projects
  • Warehouse optimization
  • Planning and scheduling
  • The configuration of manufactured objects
  • Financial decision making Knowledge publishing
  • Process monitoring and control
  • Supervise the operation of the plant and controller
  • Stock market trading
  • Airline scheduling & cargo schedules
  • Telephone System Configurator
  • Training Material & Product Selection
  • Manufacturing Resource Planning
  • Production Scheduling
  • Service Networking
  • Airline Scheduling
  • Cost/Benefit Analysis
  • Planning Implementation
  • Career Development
  • Quick Proposal Estimating
  • Credit Control
  • Product Development
  • Telephone Call Screening
  • Real Estate Market & Mortgage Credit Analysis

Examples of Expert System

Click Here – Components and Architecture of Expert System

There are few examples of expert system, such as –

MYCIN – This expert system works based on the principle of Back Chaining. It helps to identify several bacteria which can cause many infections, and then doctors suggest to patients medicine according to patient’s weight.

DENDRAL – It helps to know the different nature of chemical of any substance that is build in test tube. This expert system performs their tasks based on the structures from chemical formulas and spectrograms with using of Generate-And- Test technique.

XCON – XCON was proposed by DEC management in 1978, and finally its prototypes system was demonstrated in 1979, May. This expert system is capable to choose particular software to generate computer system based on the user preference.

PXDES – This ES helps to find out symptoms of type and degree of increasing lung cancer in the patient’s body according to present limited data.

CaDet – It deals to determine cancer in patient on the early steps.

DXplain – It delivers to several suggestions to identify various diseases according to doctor’s predictions.

GERMWATCHER – It is used for controlling of infection.

PROSPECTOR – It is designed for solving the problems of mineral exploration.

PUFF – In the initially, it was designed with using of generalization of MYCIN system, and then it is known as EMYCIN. So PUFF contains the EMYCIN programs as well as pulmonary disease knowledge base.

CASNET – CASNET stands for “Causal Associational NETworks”, and it is used for diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

Drilling Advisor – This helps to assist oil rig supervisors for solving and eliminating problem circumstances like as being stuck in the hole.

DELTA – It deals to troubleshoot for Diesel Electric Locomotive Repair.

XSEL – It is used for sale persons for producing a buy order for computer system.

ExperTax  – It delivers to advice for minimizing TAX.

MACSYMA – This system provides various techniques to scientists for solving their problems.

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