Operating Systems Tutorial
Definition: OS means operating system, and it likes as software component of computer system that is responsible for the management of all resources of computer system, and it generate the friendly environment for all applications and software, which are installed on the computer because it allows the access to them for performing their tasks effectively. So, at least one operating system must be installed on all types of computers.
Need of Operating System
Read More – Purpose | Goal of The Operating System
Operating system has ability to manage all resources, overcome conflictions, and it helps to optimize the entire performance of machine.
Operating system allows all users to make communication between their install applications.
Operating system plays the vital role to load programs while turn on system, and it transfers loaded programs disk to main memory, manipulate them and finally produce result.
Operating system allows the multiple users to run different applications in common space with using shared memory concurrently.
Functions of Operating System
In this section, we will explain of different major functions of operating system (OS) such as
- User Interface
- Booting Process
- Maintain System Performance
- Job Accountability
- Error Detection and Removal
- Fix Error and Bugs
- Create Coordination
- Memory Handler
- Process Handler
- I/O Device Management
- File Management
- Command Interpreter
- Time Sharing System
- Deadlock Presentation
- Interrupt Management
- Virtual Storage Space
- Printing Controlling
Operating system provides the user friendly interface, on which users can control all activates of system such as how to insert input data and how to display result on the computer screen.
So operating system has two types of interfaces like as
Graphic Interface – In which, O/S offers visual interface for interacting to computer system.
Command Interface – In which, O/S offers the command line interface; it means users can interact with computer by typing commands.
When we turn on the computer system then it starts the booting process. In which, it monitors the entire activities of computer system that it ready to working position or not.
Operating system contains the authentic passwords to protect entire data of system and other their internal memories. It also provides the protection from unwanted activities for getting access of its programs and data as well.
Maintain System Performance
Operating system monitors the entire system health, and it helps to increase the overall performance of system. It tries to improve the response time in between service request and system response day by day.
Operating system helps to track of all time and their resources, which are used by several tasks and multiple users, because these types of information are very useful for specific user or group of user.
Error Detection and Removal
Operating system frequently monitors the entire system to identify the errors and bugs.
Fix Error and Bugs
When operating system finds any errors or bugs then it tries to fix immediately without losing any type of data.
Operating system maintains the coordination between the users and other software such as interpreters, compilers, assemblers, and more.
Operating system manages the entire memory of computer system such as Primary Memory (Main Memory). Primary memory is designed with large array of bytes, and its every bytes is allotted a piece of address. CPU can directly access of this memory, because all programs which are to be executed, they are loaded into Primary memory. Now user programs can use these types of memory smoothly.
Operating system has a particular process model for managing the all processes is known as “Process Scheduling”. In this model, operating system can take decision that how much processing time are required for every process, and O/S monitors all status of processes. If any programs, which can be performed this types of tasks is called the “Traffic controller”.
I/O Device Management
Operating system is capable to manage all devices communication with their drivers respectively. It monitors all Input/output devices, which are connected to computer system. Input/output controller takes responsibility for each device, and it can take decision that which process gets access to particular device and for how much time. Some devices are de- allocated which are not needed for longer time.
A file system is made up into directories form for improving its efficiency and better usage. These types of directories may contain another sub directories and files. It monitors all activates related to where all information is saved, user access setting, all status of each files, and more. So this type of process is known as “File System”.
Command interpreter plays vital role in the operating system family, because it fetch all commands which are written by user at own terminal, interpret of them and translate them into machine language that are easily understand by computer hardware. Every command interpreters are designed for all operating system according O/S’s functionalities.
Time Sharing System
Operating system handles the CPU’s time at the effective manner. Time sharing determines the all CPU requests which are produced by the higher priority processes, and they are made every 10 milliseconds. When multiple processes try to competing for CPU time at the same level priority, then CPU time divides into small segments which are introduced by time slice. Now they pass from process to process according the round robin model.
When multiple processes share more than two resources but they cannot continuously because resources needed by one process are held by another. if this condition arise then it is known as deadlock. So operating system try that this above problem does not create during the resources allocation.
When any device or program is required the CPU resources then they arise the some signals for creating the CPU attention, this type of signals is known as the “Interrupt signal”. Operating systems identify the type of interrupt signals and its priority, and then send them for performing the operations.
Virtual Storage Space
During execution time, if any program has large size to Primary Memory of the computer system, then operating system needs the reserve area in the auxiliary memory, this type of memory is called the “Virtual Memory”. Due to virtual storage, OS can execute large program but its execution speed gets slow.
Operating system can also control the all printing functions such as if user sends two print commands concurrently, then O/S print them separately instead of mix data.
Uses of Operating System
Read More – Real Time Operating System (RTOS) Tutorial
The main use of an operating system is to ensure that the computer can be used and the user can do the exact same way that the command given by the user needs to be understood by the operating system that is in the computer or the device accordingly Can work. The ability of a single operating system makes everything much easier because the technique does not need to do many different processes that are told.
Other Uses Are:-
The operating system is essential for the operation of any computer. Even in a single-OS that appears, a computer performs many functions at once:
– Display an image
– Run the software
– Polling for various signals
This is true for everything from NES, ATARI, DOS or Windows PC etc (I did not get into multi-threading)
A (single core) CPU can process a single instruction stream only once (thread). As such, it is to do all those things to jump between these different tasks. It gives the illusion of multitasking.
At a very basic level, an operating system is just a scheduler. In this, there is a list of processes requiring CPU time and provides access to each process one by one, or on the basis of the load.
Without it, you will get stuck arithmetic and 100% CPU time will be required for the output.
Operating Systems Used in Banks
Operating Systems Used in Mobile
- Symbian OS
- Windows Mobile
- Palm OS
Applications of Operating System
Read More – Distributed Operating System Tutorial
- Embedded systems (Mostly use in home appliances)
- Automobile engine controllers system
- Industrial robots and Research
- Spacecraft Control System
- Industrial Control
- Large-scale computing systems such as green computing, mobile computing, soft computing etc.
- Diagnostic mode of a computer operating system (OS)
How Many Types of Operating System
Here, below list of different types of operating systems , which are used in computer. Describe each one.
Batch Processing Operating System
In the Batch processing operating system, all jobs (tasks) are executed in series nature on the computer system without any hindrance. In this system all processing performs automatically, and no need the insert manually input.
Multi-programming Operating System
Multi-programming was started to overcome the problem of under utilization of CPUs and main memory. Multiprogramming is interfered in the execution of multiple jobs by a single computer.
Multiprocessor Operating System
Multiprocessor operating system allows to connect multiple central processing units within a single computer system. The term refers to the ability of a system to support more than one processor or assign tasks to them.
Desktop Operating System
Desktop operating system is known as “Client Operating System”. Desktop operating system is installed in the user’s machine such as (desktop, laptop or notepad), and it provides the environment in between the users and hardware, due to that environment users can control the entire local machine as well as their peripheral.
Examples are – Microsoft Windows, Linux, Unix, Mac, Android, Ubuntu, IOS, and more..
Distributed Operating System
The distributed operating system is a model where distributed apps are running on many computers connected through communication. A distributed operating system is an extension of the network operating system that supports high levels of communication and integration of machines on the network.
Clustered Operating System
A package system uses several CPUs to accomplish a task. It is different from the parallel system in the package system, in which two or more separate systems are tied together. Clustered computers share the storage and are connected closely through LAN networking.
Clustering is usually done to provide high availability. A layer of cluster software runs on the cluster nodes. Each node can monitor one or more nodes on the LAN.
Real Time Operating System
Purpose of operating system (OS) is responsible for managing the computer’s hardware resources and hosting applications running on the computer. Real Time Operating System is designed specifically for such applications, which are run 24*7 days without human interference. This can be particularly important in measurement and automation systems, where downtime is expensive or delay in program security can be a threat.
Handheld Operating System
Handheld operating systems are small tools that do basic tasks like email, web browsing and scheduling.
Network Operating System
Network Operating System is designed especially for operating different networking terminals such as router, hub, switch, firewall, server, and more. Network Operating System is installed on the server machine, because it helps to provide the best ability of servers for managing of several users, data, group, and etc.
Multitasking Operating System
Multitasking Operating System can support to multiple tasks (Programs), and it executes them concurrently without losing any information. For instance, users can browse internet while playing game.
Multi user Operating System
In multi user operating system, multiple users can access to single machine with running one operating system at a same time. For example – if printer connects to network system, then several users can give the multiple commands for generating the hard copy.
Single User Operating System
Single User Operating System is designed especially for personal computer system. In Single User Operating System, only one user can access single operating system at a time. It has two variant such as Single user/ Single Task OS, Single user/Multi Task OS.
Operating System Examples
Read More – Guide to Batch Processing Operating System
Here, we will spread the light on examples of all types of operating system. Such as
Examples of Networking Operating System
- Microsoft Windows Server 2003
- Microsoft Windows Server 2008
- Microsoft Windows 2000
- Microsoft Windows XP
- Artisoft’s LANtastic
- Novell NetWare
- Banyan VINES
- Sun Solaris
- Mac OS X
Examples of Multitasking Operating System
- Windows XP
- Windows Vista
- Windows 7
- Windows 8
- Windows 10
- Windows 2000
- IBM’s OS/390
Multi User Operating System Examples
- Virtual Memory System
- Mainframe OS
- Windows NT
- Windows 2000
- Windows XP
- Windows Vista
- Mac OS X
- Plan 9
- GNU HURD
Examples of Single User Operating System
- Windows 1.0
- Windows 2.0
- Windows 3.0
- Windows 3.1x
- Windows 95
- Windows 97
- Windows 98
- Windows ME
- MS – DOS
- Symbian OS
Examples of Batch Processing Operating System
- Payroll System
- Bank Invoice System
- Transactions Process
- Daily Report
- Research Segment
- Billing System
Examples of Multiprocessor Operating System
- Windows NT, Solaris, Digital UNIX, OS/2 & Linux
- SunOS Version 4, IOS
Other Examples are
- Intel Nehalem – Beckton, Westmere, Sandy Bridge
- AMD Opteron – K10 (Barcelona, Magny Cours); Bulldozer
- ARM Cortex A9, A15 MPCore
- Oracle (Sun) UltraSpare T1, T2, T3, T4 (Niagara)
Distributed Operating System Example
Examples of Real Time Operating System
- Automobile Sector such as Anti-Lock Brake and Air Bag.
- For military as a Defense system such as RADAR.
- Use in Stock Exchange for updating all current information.
- Scientific experiments for Nuclear reactors