What is Twisted Pair Cable
Definition: Twisted pair cable is special type cabling that is used in telephone communication and Ethernet network. This cable is made with two separate insulated copper wires, which are twisted together with each other as well as run in parallel form. The copper wires are persisted with 1mm in diameter. One of them wires helps to transmit data and another is used to get ground reference.
This twisted pair offers protection from crosstalk, signal interference, and noise is created by adjacent pair. When electrical current is getting to flow via wire, then it arises a small, circular magnetic field rounding the wire.
Why to Use of Twisting
All transmissions are done with crosstalk, interference, and noise. When wires are getting to twisted, then few parts of noise signals is in the direction of data signals but other parts are flowing in the against direction. Due to different twists, it gets to cancel external waves. The receiver is capable to manipulate the difference in the voltages of two wires for getting to fetch data. So, it gets better immunity opposite noise is obtained.
For making connection in between two computer system for getting to connect this cable, we have to need some connectors on the both edges of the cable. Mostly, RJ45 connector is used for making computer communication. RJ is full form is “Registered Jack“, and it is a male-female type keyed connector.
Categories of Twisted–Pair Cables:
Twisted pair cables are classified by EIA into seven categories −
- Category 1 − UTP used in telephone lines with data rate < 0.1 Mbps
- Category 2 − UTP used in transmission lines with a data rate of 2 Mbps
- Category 3 − UTP used in LANs with a data rate of 10 Mbps
- Category 4 − UTP used in Token Ring networks with a data rate of 20 Mbps
- Category 5 − UTP used in LANs with a data rate of 100 Mbps
- Category 6 − UTP used in LANs with a data rate of 200 Mbps
- Category 7 − STP used in LANs with a data rate of 10 Mbps
Types of Twisted-Pair Cables
There are two examples of twisted pair cable; such as –
- Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
- Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP): Shielded twisted pair was introduced by IBM and it is used firstly in IBM organization only. Shielded twisted pair cable consist a metal foil otherwise braided mesh undercover that mainly encase every pair of insulated conductors. So, metal casing helps to improve the quality of wire by securing the penetration of noise otherwise crosstalk. It has higher price as well as bulkier.
It is also called the metal shield that is normally linked to ground so as to decrease the interference of noise. STP is used for both transmissions analog and digital. STP’s bandwidth is supported by cable depends on thickness of wire and its distance that to be walked by signal on it.
Other considerations of about STP Cables:
- STP cable can support various megabits/sec for some kilometer and less expensive.
- It provides speed or throughput of approximate 10 to 100 Mbps.
- It can support maximum cable length about 100 meters.
- It gets low attenuation than UTP cable.
- STP is more expensive compare to UTP.
- STP contains must be grounding cable.
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP): UTP cable has four pair of color coded copper wires together and they are covered with flexible plastic sheath. Due to twist of copper wire, it gets cancel electromagnetic interference from the external sources.
Unshielded twisted pair cable does not contain any other extra shielding such as meshes or aluminum foil, which are appended in bulk, are used. UTP cables do not implement any shielding to counter EMI and RFI effects.
UTP cables are mostly used in the computer network as well as in the telecommunication sector as telephone wires and Ethernet cables. It is small size, so easy to installation.
Other considerations of about UTP Cables:
- It provides the speed or throughput of almost 10 to 1000Mbps.
- It contains the maximum cable length of about 100 meter.
- UTP gets high attenuation than STP.
- It generates higher crosstalk to STP.
- It does not need grounding cable.
Application of Twisted Pair Cable
Twisted pair cable is used in various areas, like as –
- Ethernet network
- Telephone lines
- DSL lines
- Security camera system