What is Fiber Optic Cable
Definition: Fiber optic cable is also called the “Optical Fiber Cable“, and it is simply Ethernet networking cable that contains the multiple optic fibers, and they allow to transmit data with massive volume.
Main goal of designing the optical fiber cable is to offer ultra performance data networking and telecommunication in long distance. Fiber optic cable has to support much of TV’s cable, telephone systems, and used in worldwide internet.
What is Fiber Optic Cable Made of:
Fiber optic cable is constructed with using of five parts like as core, cladding, coating, strengthening, and outer jacket. Core is thin strands of glass that is called the optical fibers, and “Cladding” is getting to insulation casing surrounding the Core offering the lower refractive index to perform all tasks by optical fiber. “Coating” works as protective layer of optical fiber and “Strengthening” allows to protection of core against crushing forces and excessive tension while insulating. And final, outer jacket helps to protect the optical fiber from environmental hazards.
Why to Use of Optical Fiber Cable:
Due to few reasons, we can use the optical fiber cable; like as –
- It provides the highly carrying capacity like as much broad bandwidth, THz or Tbits/s.
- It is getting very less transmission losses such as <0.2dB/km, cf1dB/km microwave, 10db/km twisted copper pair.
- It gets to immune to cross-talk and electromagnetic interference.
- It don’t produce the dissipate heat.
- It is able to contain the unlimited information.
Types of Fiber Optic Cables
Optical fiber cables are divided into mainly three categories; below explain each one –
- Based on the Number of Modes
- Based on the Refractive Index
- Based on the Materials
Based on the Number of Modes
There are three types; below explain each one –
- Single-Mode Fiber
- Multi-Mode fiber
Single mode fiber cable has small core diameter with ranging of 5 to 9.05 um, and it is capable only one way transmission with 1310 or 1550nm. This cable provides the higher transmission rate that is up to 50 times with more distance compares to multimode cable.
Single mode cable contains the higher bandwidth to multimode, but it needs the light source along with narrow spectral width.
This type cable has smaller core to multimode, and small core and single light wave virtually discard any distortion that helps to provide result from overlapping light pulses, and offer the least signal attenuation and along with higher transmission speeds of any types of fiber optic cable. so, it is more expensive cable.
Single mode cable is also capable to offer the lowest order bound mode that can propagate at the wave length of typically 1300 to 1320nm.
Single mode cable is mostly used in several applications where to need only one cable for sending at the multi-frequency (WDM Wave-Division-Multiplexing); such as –
- Local area network as well as point to point links in many cities
- One and multiple buildings
- Small and medium scale companies
- College campuses
Multi mode fiber cable is enabled with large number of modes for getting light ray flowing through it. It has bigger diameter with ranging of 50 to 100 micron for carrying light components. Multi mode fiber cables are available as glass fibers, plastic fiber, and plastic clas silica.
Multimode fiber is also called the multi core, and it has various specifications. Its bandwidth has to ability to cope along with higher data throughput over the shorter distances that is measured by number of cores the cable carries.
Multi mode fiber also provides you higher bandwidth with highly speeds (0 to 100MBS – Gigabit to 275m to 2km) for using over the medium distances.
Multimode fiber cable has to significantly enhance reflection, and its output with higher attenuation and dispersion rates, so it helps to increase the bandwidth delivering over the smaller distances.
Multi mode fiber cable is used commonly in various applications; like as –
- Local Area Networks
- Private networks
- Data Centers
- Financial Centers
- Corporate Campuses
Multi mode fiber is further divided into two categories like as Step Index Fiber and Graded Index Fiber.
Based on the Refractive Index
There are also two types; below explain each one, like as –
- Step-Index Optical Fiber
- Graded Index Optical Fiber
Step-Index Optical Fiber
The refractive index of core and cladding are getting to constant, and It also help to propagate the rays of light through it in the shape of meridional rays that gets to cross the fiber axis while each reflection at the core cladding boundary.
Graded Index Optical Fiber
In the grade index optical fiber, the core contains a non uniform refractive index which gradually decreases from center point towards core cladding interface, and the cladding consists the uniform refractive index. It allows to propagate the rays of light through it in the form of skew rays or helical rays. This cable is not able to cross the fiber axis at any time.
Based on the Materials
There are also two types; below explain each one, like as
- Glass Fiber Cable
- Plastic Optical Fibers
Glass Fiber Cable
Glass fiber cable is getting more dedication compare to plastic counterparts, and it has to get more susceptible to damage, if it has to move regularly over its run length. It is not capable to cut, spliced or repaired, so it is not comfortable for those applications where to need higher level flexibility.
This fiber cable is used in, where longer distance applications are submerged or buried. Due to many different adapters, fittings, and configurations available.
Plastic Optical Fibers
The poly is used as a core material for the transmission of light.