Hello Friends! Today, we are going to explain GSM architecture with its diagram in wireless communication with ease. After reading this article, you will definitely aware about GSM Network Architecture without getting any hindrance.
Introduction to GSM network
GSM means the Global System for Mobile communication that is a digital mobile network and widely going to use by mobile phone users in Europe and other regions of the PAN world. It is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation (2G) digital cellular networks.
GSM Architecture Diagram
GSM is mostly going to use around the world, so it is most compatible along with various different networks and devices. It provides the enhanced security features like as authentication, encryption, and confidentiality that helps to secure the user’s privacy and data. GSM uses a time-division multiplexing (TDM) technique, which enables many users to efficiently use the available bandwidth.
GSM Architecture Tutorial Headlines:
In this section, we will show you all headlines about this entire article; you can check them as your choice; below shown all:
- Introduction to GSM network
- GSM Network Architecture in Mobile Computing
- The Mobile Station (MS)
- Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
- The Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)
- The Operation Support Subsystem (OSS)
- FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
- What is GSM architecture?
- What are the main components of the GSM architecture?
- What is the role of the Mobile Station (MS) in GSM architecture?
- What is the Base Station Subsystem (BSS) in GSM architecture?
- What is the Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) in GSM architecture?
- What is the purpose of the Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS) in GSM architecture?
- What are the frequencies used in GSM networks?
Let’s Get Started!!
GSM Network Architecture in Mobile Computing
The GSM network architecture is divided into four major segments like as the Mobile Station (MS), the Base Station Subsystem (BSS), the Network Switching Subsystem (NSS), and the Operation Support Subsystem (OSS); below shown each one in detail, you can check them:
The Mobile Station (MS)
It is a term used in mobile communications to refer to a device that can communicate wirelessly with a cellular network. It is the mobile device used by the subscriber to communicate with the network.
Also Read: Mobile Computing Architecture with Diagram
The MS consists of two parts: Mobile Equipment (ME) and Subscriber Identity Module (SIM).
The ME includes the hardware and software necessary to communicate with the network. The MS provides the air interface to the user in GSM networks. It helps to provide the receptor for SMS messages that is enabling the user to toggle between the voice and data use. As well as, the mobile facilitates access to voice messaging systems. The MS also offers the access to the various data services available in a GSM network. These data services include X.25 packet switching through a synchronous or asynchronous dial-up connection to the PAD at speeds typically at 9.6 Kbps.
The SIM contains the subscriber’s personal information, such as the phone number and authentication data. The SIM provides personal mobility so that the user can have access to all subscribed services irrespective of both the location of the terminal and the use of a specific terminal. The SIM card has a plenty of information, including a number that is called the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI).
Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
The BSS is merged with the hardware and software components like as the base station controllers (BSC), base transceiver stations (BTS) and mobile switching centers (MSC). Here, we will guide you some important key points to understand about the BSS that you should be known:
BTS: The BTS provides the radio interface between the MS and the network. It contains the equipment for transmitting and receiving radio signals, antennas, and equipment for encrypting and decrypting communications with the BSC. The BTS is usually placed in the center of a cell and may have several transceivers (TRXs) that allow it to serve several different frequencies and different sectors of the cell.
BSC: The BSC manages the communication between the BTS and the MSC. It helps to manage the main part of the radio network and manages the allocation of radio channels, receives and sends signals to the BTS, and controls the operational states of every TRX.
MSC: The MSC is responsible for handling the switching and routing of calls and messages within the network. It is responsible for switching calls between different MSs and between MSs and the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). The MSC also manages the communication between the BSS and the Network Switching Subsystem (NSS).
The BSS is responsible for various functions in the mobile network, including radio resource management, call and message routing, mobility management, and Quality of Service (QoS) management. It manages the use of radio resources, such as frequency bands and time slots, to ensure efficient and effective use of the network. It is also responsible for tracking the location of the MS and managing the handover of calls and messages from one BTS to another as the MS moves.
The Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)
The Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) is a critical component of the GSM system that carries out call switching and mobility management functions for mobile phones roaming on the network of base stations. It is owned and deployed by mobile phone operators and allows mobile devices to communicate with each other and telephones in the wider public switched telephone network (PSTN). The NSS is made up of several components, including:
Visitor Location Register (VLR): The VLR is a database that stores information about MSs that are currently in the area covered by the MSC. It contains temporary information about the subscriber, such as the location area, the Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN), and the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI).
Home Location Register (HLR): The HLR is a database that stores permanent information about the subscriber, such as the subscriber’s phone number, the IMSI, and the services to which the subscriber has subscribed. The HLR is responsible for managing the subscriber’s mobility, including location updates, authentication, and call routing.
Authentication Center (AuC): The AuC is responsible for providing authentication and encryption keys to the MSC to ensure the security of the network. It stores the secret key used for authentication and encryption, and it generates the authentication and encryption keys for each subscriber.
Equipment Identity Register (EIR): The EIR is a database that stores information about the mobile devices, such as the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number, to prevent the use of stolen or unauthorized devices.
The Operation Support Subsystem (OSS)
The Operation Support Subsystem (OSS) is a set of programs and systems used by telecommunications service providers to manage their networks. The OSS is responsible for various functions in the mobile network, including network planning, network provisioning, service fulfillment, service assurance, and resource management.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
What is GSM architecture?
GSM architecture represents the structure of the GSM network that is the standard for cellular communication. It consists the various network elements and components, which work together to offer the mobile services.
What are the main components of the GSM architecture?
The primary components of GSM architecture like as Mobile Station (MS), Base Station Subsystem (BSS), Network Switching Subsystem (NSS), and Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS).
What is the role of the Mobile Station (MS) in GSM architecture?
The Mobile Station (MS) means the user’s device such as mobile phone. The MS makes the communication with the network via radio waves.
What is the Base Station Subsystem (BSS) in GSM architecture?
BSS contains the Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) and Base Station Controllers (BSC). BTS keeps managing the radio communication along with mobile devices and BSC handles the resources and handovers in between different BTS.
What is the Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) in GSM architecture?
NSS includes the Mobile Switching Center (MSC), Visitor Location Register (VLR), Home Location Register (HLR), and Authentication Center (AUC). MSC helps to connect the calls, VLR stores information about subscribers currently in the location, HLR keeps store the subscriber data, and AUC offers the authentication and encryption keys.
What is the purpose of the Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS) in GSM architecture?
OSS has the responsibility the management, maintenance, and support of has many components, which help for network monitoring, fault detection, configuration management, and performance optimization.
What are the frequencies used in GSM networks?
GSM operates in multiple frequency bands such as the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz bands (known as GSM 900 and GSM 1800 or DCS 1800). The specific frequencies used may vary by different areas.
Now, we can hope that you have been fully understood about GSM architecture in wireless communication with ease. If this article is fruitful for you, then please share it along with your friends, family members or relatives over social media platforms like as Facebook, Instagram, Linked In, Twitter, and more.
Also Read: Types of Mobile Computing and their Examples
If you have any experience, tips, tricks, or query regarding this issue? You can drop a comment!