30 Parts of Scanner {Internally/Externally} | Functions of Scanner

Hello Learners! Today, you will discover the essential parts of scanner with their functions and how they work together to make an efficient scanning experience. Get the right detail of parts for your scanner and primary functions of scanner with ease!

Introduction to Scanner Parts

Scanner is an input device of computer that converts physical documents or images into digital format, making them easily accessible on a computer. It consists of several essential parts that work together to capture and process the input. The main components of a scanner include the glass platen, which is the flat surface where the document is placed for scanning.

parts of scanner with functions

The scanning head, equipped with a light source and sensors, moves across the document and captures the image. The motor and belts control the movement of the scanning head. Finally, the control panel and software allow users to customize settings and manage the scanning process efficiently.

What are the Parts of Scanner?

Scanner is designed with different kinds of part as internally and externally; and those parts have many functions individually. In this section, we will show you many parts of scanner that names are mentioned below; you can check them:

Internal Parts of Scanner

Scanner consists of several internal parts that work together to capture and process the scanned information. Here are the main internal parts of scanner, including:

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Light Source: Scanners usually incorporate a light source, such as a fluorescent lamp or LED (Light-Emitting Diode). The light source illuminates the document being scanned, making it easier to capture the details.

Document Bed: The document bed is a flat surface where you place the document or object to be scanned. It is usually made of glass or acrylic to provide a smooth and stable platform for the scanning process.

Image Sensor: The image sensor is the component responsible for capturing the digital representation of the document. CIS sensors are more common in modern scanners due to their compact size, low power consumption, and fast scanning speeds. CCD sensors, while less common today, are known for their high-quality image capture.

Optics: The optical system of a scanner consists of lenses and mirrors that focus and direct the light reflected from the document onto the image sensor. The optics help ensure sharp and accurate scanning by minimizing distortion and aberrations.

Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC): The main responsibility of analog-to-digital converter is to convert the analog signals grabbed from the image sensor into digital data. It gets the electrical output from the image sensor and then converts it into a series of digital values that display the color or grayscale information of every pixel in the scanned image.

Control Circuitry: Scanners have control circuitry that manages the overall operation of the device. This circuitry includes microprocessors, memory, and firmware/software that control the scanning process, manage settings, and handle data transfer between the scanner and connected devices.

Motor and Belt System: Scanners often incorporate a motorized system that moves the scanning head or the document being scanned. The motor and belt system provide the necessary mechanical motion to ensure the complete coverage of the document during scanning.

Interface: The interface allows the scanner to communicate with a computer or other devices. Common interfaces enable USB (Universal Serial Bus), Wi-Fi, or Ethernet that enable data transfer and control commands in between the scanner and the linked device.

Mirror Assembly: In scanners that use a CCD sensor, a mirror assembly is often present. It includes a set of mirrors that redirect the light reflected from the document onto the CCD sensor. The mirrors help adjust the optical path and ensure accurate scanning.

Calibration System: To maintain accurate and consistent scanning results, many scanners have a calibration system. This system includes calibration targets, which are either built into the scanner or provided as separate calibration sheets. The scanner uses these targets to calibrate itself, compensating for any variations or imperfections in the scanning process.

Cooling System: Some high-end scanners, especially those designed for heavy use or large-scale scanning projects, may incorporate a cooling system. This system helps prevent overheating of the internal components during prolonged operation and ensures optimal performance and reliability.

Dust Removal Mechanism: Dust particles on the scanning bed or the document being scanned can adversely affect the image quality. To mitigate this issue, certain scanners feature a dust removal mechanism, such as built-in brushes or air jets that help remove dust and debris from the scanning area.

Power Supply: Scanners require a power supply to operate. The power supply flows the necessary electrical power for whole the components to function properly.

These are the primary internal components of scanner. However, it’s important to note that different scanner models may have additional features or components depending on their specific capabilities and intended use.

External Parts of Scanner

There are some common external components of scanner as following them:

Also Read: 10 Uses of Scanner and Its Applications in Real Life!!

Control Panel: The control panel is typically situated at the front or top of the scanner and consists the buttons, switches, and LED display. It allows you to control various scanning settings, select scan modes, adjust image quality, and initiate scanning operations.

Input Tray: The input tray is where you place the documents or photos that you want to scan. It is usually located at the front of the scanner and may have adjustable paper guides to accommodate different document sizes.

Output Tray: The output tray is where the scanned documents or photos are delivered after the scanning process. It is often located at the front or top of the scanner and may include extendable trays or supports to hold the scanned output neatly.

Document Cover: Some scanners have a hinged document cover that can be lifted to place bulky or bound documents for scanning. The document cover helps to ensure that the document stays flat and properly positioned during scanning.

Connectivity Ports: Scanners typically have one or more connectivity ports to establish a connection with a computer or other devices. The most essential port is the USB (Universal Serial Bus) port, but few scanners may also contain the Ethernet ports, Wi-Fi capabilities, or memory card slots for direct scanning and data transfer.

Power Button and Indicator: The power button facilitates you to turn the scanner on or off. There is often an indicator light that shows the status of the scanner, such as power on/off, standby, or scanning in progress.

Lid/Latch: Many flatbed scanners have a lid that can be opened or closed to cover the scanning bed when not in use. The lid protects the scanning surface from dust and damage. Some scanners may also have a latch or lock mechanism to secure the lid during transportation or storage.

Size and Weight: Compact portable scanners are lightweight and designed for easy transport, while desktop scanners are larger and more robust.

Scanner Base: The scanner base is the main body of the scanner that houses the internal components. It provides stability and support for the scanning process.

Cable Management: Scanners usually come with cables to connect them to a computer or power source. Some scanners have cable management features, such as clips or channels, to help organize and secure the cables, reducing clutter and tangling.

Transparency Adapter: Certain scanners, particularly those designed for scanning slides, negatives, or transparencies, may include a transparency adapter. This is an external attachment that connects to the scanner and provides a backlighting source to illuminate the transparent media during scanning.

Film Holders: Scanners that support film scanning often come with specialized film holders. These holders are external accessories designed to hold and position the film or negatives properly during scanning. They ensure accurate alignment and help minimize the risk of damage to the film.

Carrying Case: Some portable scanners come with a dedicated carrying case or bag. These cases provide protection during transportation and storage and often have compartments for storing cables, adapters, and other accessories.

Buttons and Programmable Function Keys: Alongside the control panel, scanners may have additional buttons or programmable function keys on the scanner itself. These buttons allow quick access to specific scanning functions, such as scan-to-email, scan-to-PDF, or custom scan settings.

Adjustable Paper Guides and Supports: Scanners with adjustable paper guides and supports provide flexibility for scanning documents of different sizes and thicknesses. These guides and supports can be adjusted to ensure proper alignment and prevent document skewing during the scanning process.

Display Screen: Some higher-end scanners feature a built-in display screen. The screen provides visual feedback, status updates, and settings information. It may allow you to preview scanned images or make adjustments directly on the scanner.

Card Slots and USB Ports: Some scanners, particularly those designed for scanning ID cards or business cards, may include dedicated card slots or USB ports. These ports allow you to insert the cards directly into the scanner for scanning without the need for an additional input tray.

Locking Mechanisms: Scanners that are designed for portable or rugged use may have locking mechanisms or latches to secure the scanner components during transport. These mechanisms ensure that the scanner remains closed and protected when not in use.

These are some of the common external parts of a scanner. The specific features and design elements may vary depending on the scanner model and manufacturer.

Scanner Parts with their Functions in Tabular Form

Here’s a tabular form listing some common parts of a scanner along with their functions:

Part of Scanner


Document Feeder

Automatically feeds the documents or pages to be scanned into the scanner. It allows for efficient batch scanning.

Glass Platen

Provides a flat and stable surface where the document is placed for scanning. It ensures accurate image capture.

Scanning Head

Contains the light source, sensors, and lenses. The scanning head moves across the document, capturing the image or text and converting it into a digital format.

Light Source

Provides illumination for the document being scanned. It ensures that the document is evenly lit and that the image is captured clearly. Common light sources include LED or fluorescent lights.

Image Sensor

Captures the light reflected from the document and converts it into an electronic signal. Common types of image sensors like as Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) and Contact Image Sensor (CIS).


Focuses the light reflected from the document onto the image sensor. It helps in capturing a sharp and clear image.

Control Panel

Allows the user to interact with the scanner. It provides buttons or a touchscreen for selecting scanning options, adjusting settings, and initiating the scanning process.


Controls the movement of the scanning head and document feeder. It ensures precise and consistent scanning motion.

Connectivity Ports

Enables the scanner to be connected to a computer or other devices. Some common connectivity methods such as USB, Ethernet, or Wi-Fi.

Power Supply

Provides the necessary electrical power to operate the scanner. It can be built-in or external, depending on the scanner model.

Output Tray

Collects the scanned documents as they come out of the scanner. It keeps the documents organized and prevents them from falling onto the ground.

Automatic Document Detection Sensor

Detects the presence and size of the document being scanned. It enables the scanner to adjust its settings automatically for different document sizes.

Paper Guides

Helps align the document correctly on the glass platen. It ensures that the document is positioned accurately for scanning and prevents skewing or misalignment.

Roller Assembly

Comprises rollers that help feed the document smoothly through the scanner. It reduces the chances of paper jams and ensures consistent document feeding.

Duplexing Unit

Enables the scanner to scan both sides of a document automatically. It saves time and effort by eliminating the need to manually flip the document for double-sided scanning.

Card Slot

Allows for scanning of plastic cards, such as IDs or business cards. It provides a dedicated slot for inserting and scanning these types of documents.

Dust Cover

Protects the glass platen and scanning components from dust, debris, and scratches when the scanner is not in use. It helps maintain the scanner’s performance and prolongs its lifespan.

Calibration Sheet

A specialized sheet used for calibrating the scanner. It ensures accurate color reproduction and image quality during scanning.

Document Eject Tray

Receives the scanned documents as they exit the scanner. It provides a convenient location for collecting the scanned pages and helps keep them organized.

OCR (Optical Character Recognition) Software

Although not a physical part of the scanner, OCR software is often bundled with scanners. It converts scanned text into editable and searchable digital text, making it easier to work with the scanned documents

Display Screen

Some scanners feature a built-in display screen that provides visual feedback, settings adjustment options and status information during the scanning process.

What Are The Functions Of Scanner?

Here, we are going to cover the main functions of a scanner as following them:

Also Read: What is Computer System? Uses and Applications of Computer!

Document Digitization: Scanners lets you to convert physical documents, like as papers, receipts, or photographs, into digital files that are making them easier to store, manage, and share electronically.

Optical Character Recognition (OCR): Scanners equipped with OCR technology can recognize and convert printed or handwritten text into editable and searchable digital formats. This enables you to extract and manipulate text from scanned documents.

Image Capture: Scanners can capture high-quality images of photos, artwork, or other visual materials, preserving them in digital format and allowing for easy reproduction or sharing.

Archiving and Record-Keeping: By scanning and digitizing significant documents, like as contracts, invoices, or legal papers, then scanners facilitate efficient archiving and record-keeping. This reduces physical storage requirements and enables quick retrieval of digital files when needed.

Data Integration: Scanned documents can be integrated with various software applications and databases, allowing for seamless data transfer and integration. This can be particularly useful for data entry, document management systems, or workflow automation.

Quality Enhancement: Modern scanners often include features like automatic color correction, dust and scratch removal, and image enhancement tools, which can improve the quality and appearance of scanned documents and images.

Multiple File Format Support: Scanners typically support many file formats, like as PDF, JPEG, TIFF, or PNG that are giving you flexibility in choosing the format that best suits your requirements for different kinds of scanned documents.

Batch Scanning: Scanners equipped with automatic document feeders (ADF) enable batch scanning of multiple pages, allowing you to quickly process a stack of documents without manually placing each page on the scanner.

Integration with other Devices: Scanners can be connected to computers, laptops, or mobile devices, enabling seamless integration and synchronization. This facilitates efficient transfer of scanned files to other devices or cloud storage platforms for easy access and sharing.

Summing Up

Now we can hope that though this article; you are completely educated about different parts of scanner as well as essential functions of scanner with ease. If this content is useful for you, then please share it along with your friends, family members or relatives over social media platforms like as Facebook, Instagram, Linked In, Twitter, and more.

Also Read: 10+ Uses of Printers in Daily Life {Complete Guide}!!

If you have any experience, tips, tricks, or query regarding this issue? You can drop a comment!

Happy Learning!!

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