Types of Computer Hardware Parts (Components/Devices) and its Functions

Computer hardware components refer to all physical components, which are needed to perform many functions by your computer system. Now, here we are going to explain all different types of computer hardware parts and their functions; as well as many computer hardware components with ease. Thus, i make ensure that at the end of this article; you will fully learn about all computer hardware parts without any hindrance.

What is Computer Hardware?

DefinitionComputer contains the combination of hardware and software. Computer hardware is group of the all physical (touchable) components that are easily manageable, and all softwares  are useless without implementing the different types of  computer hardware parts, all softwares are performed on the hardware.

Computer hardware components

With the using of input hardware components can be inserted the input to computer, and retrieve the useful output with the help of output hardware devices.

Computer Hardware Parts and Functions

Every computer parts have own  unique function, so we explain types of computer hardware and their functions.

Computer hardware devices are classified into four different categories such as:

Categories of Computer Hardware:

1.Input Devices

2. Processing Devices

3. Output Devices

4.Memory/Storage Devices

Types of Computer Hardware and Their Functions

Input hardware devices of computer with example – These components are mostly to be used for recognized the input data that are given by users for solving their problems. Input instructions can be different types such as text, images, audio, and video. With the help of these hardware components these data transfer from input devices to computer.

Function – Obtain all different types of data from various types of input devices such as keyboard can allows only alphanumeric information and tracking device feed spatial information, and convert all data into machine language like as 0, 1 form. Finally calculated data provide to computer memory.

Basic List Computer Hardware Components and Their Functions:

Here, We are describing basic hardware parts of computer system, and  many types of input devices of computer like as:

Pointing Device:

Pointing devices create the input interface, with the help of this interface user help to control and feed the instructions to the PC using physical moving hand held devices like as mouse and more. Control the all positions of pointer on the screen of monitor with using pointing devices.

There are many examples of input devices of computer such as:

With the help of mouse of computer can be control a cursor, and select all types of text,files, icon on your computer screen.

In the Trackball, one small movable ball places on the surface, and using this ball can be moved any direction on the computer screen.

Touchpad is best alternative to mouse device. In which all  input give to computer by touching to touch pad, mostly this component is embedded on the laptop.

4. Pointing Stick

Pointing stick device shapes same as pencil eraser that is placed between G,H and B key on the keyboard.

5. Graphics Tablet

Graphics tablet is also known as drawing tablet. The main purpose of this device is to draw any types of sketch on his surface with using digital pen.

6. Touch screen

In the touch screen, users can select any text, file,and file with own fingers, without any other components.

7. Light Pen

This shape like as pen, with using this input device to feed input directly by this pen on the computer screen with good accuracy.

8. Stylus

Stylus input device is look like as small type pen shaped, purpose of this component to give the input instructions to computer screen and graphich tablet.

9. Motion sensor

Motion sensors detect the motion input that are given by user without any other input device.

10. Interactive smartboard

This is special digital smart white board, user can control the computer with smart board, when write any thing on the surface with the help to stylus and digital pen.

11. Fingerprint scanner

This device use for authenticate the user when they press their finger on the surface of fingerprint scanner.

12. Multi-touch screen

With the use of this technology, multiple uses can send input at the same time.

Game Controller:

These types of devices are designed for playing game with connect to a computer or other gaming system console. The main role of game controller devices is to all individual object, and character in your game.

Some examples are:

1.Game Pads

Game pad are designed for playing game, and can be handled by both hand.


Mainly, joysticks devices are designed for playing game, using this device can be control any character in the game.

3. Steering Wheels

Look like as car steering, and use for changing the direction the any object in the game.

4. Paddle

This device move up and down direction, this input component is also useful  to game console.

5. Yoke

This yoke input devices are designed specially to flight simulation game.

6. Motion Sensing

Motion sensing devices are capable to detect the real life motion, and produce the optimal result.

7. Light Gun

Shape look like as real gun, main motive to design this device to shooting games.

8. Rhythm Game Controllers

These types of game controller devices are made for music types game, for controlling the rhythm.

Audio Input /Output Device:

With the help of audio input devices, user can send audio instructions to computer for different tasks such as processing, recording, and more. Many audio input devices work with speech recognition programs, because this software helps to translate spoken words into text document.

There are some examples of audio input devices such as


This device is able to convert sound waves into electrical waves.

2. Midi keyboard

This device looks like as piano that is connect to computer via USB cable.

Audio Output Devices:

Some functionality are required for audio and video convert into hear able voice that our ears can hear these voice. This functionality may be special hardware and processing system, and this task can be fulfill by “Audio output devices“.

Here few examples for Audio output devices are:

1. Sound Cards

This is external card which is attached with motherboard for yielding the audio output information.

2. Speakers

This is output hardware device that is used for the producing the sound.

3. Headphone

This device is wear on the head so its name is headphone, this device allow to user listen music without anyone.

4. Onboard Audio

This circuit embedded internal y in the motherboard that produce the output in the form of sound, after processed data.  

Bluetooth Peripheral:

Some devices connect to computer with Bluetooth mean wireless technology.

  • Headset
  • Gamepad

Visual and Imaging Devices:

Such components help to provide input to computer in the form of images and visual.

Some examples are:

1. Webcam

This device uses for capture the real time image, and it connects to computer.

2. Digital Camera

Digital camera is able to store all images and videos store in digital form (memory chip) instead film (reel).

3. Digital Camcorder

Digital camcorder devices are able to recording all video into real-motion.

4. Biometric Scanner

Biometric scanner devices are designed for security purpose, because these devices are capable to identify the persons.

5. Barcode Reader

Biometric scanner devices are designed for security purpose, because these devices are capable to identify the persons.

Network Devices:

With the help of network devices, we can connect two or more computer, and other their hardware devices for making network.

Theses are

  1. Ethernet hardware
  2. Bluetooth/wireless hardware.

Processing Hardware Devices of Computer

Processing is most important function of computer, because in this phase has been done transformation to data into useful information using with many computer processing computer hardware devices.

Function – The main function of processing devices are have to responsible for getting meaningful information from converted data with the help of various processing devices.

Processing device examples are:

Microprocessor is logically integrated chip that is processed   all logical instructions, and produce the output.

2. GPU

Graphics processing unit is also a processor that is designed for rending the videos and images with good quality.


With the help of this Central processing unit can be executed all instruction such as logically, arithmetically, and I/O operation which are given by users.

Motherboard is heart of the computer, because all processor and other components are connected with the motherboard.

5. Network Card

Network card help to connect multiple computer and other devices of computer.

6. Sound Card

Execute the voice instructions and arise the output in the sound form.

7. Video Card

Use to process the all video instructions, and yield the good quality video.

Output Hardware Components of Computer

Output devices received the processed information form processing components, and finally produce them into various form such text, audio, and video. These output devices might be connected with computer via wireless or wired.

Function – Obtain all different types of data from various types of input devices such as keyboard can allows only alphanumeric information and tracking device feed spatial information, and convert all data into machine language like as 0, 1 form. Finally calculated data provide to computer memory.

There are many Examples of Output Devices of a Computer like are

Monitors use for showing the output in the visual shape, which is soft form.

2. Printer

Monitors use for showing the output in the visual shape, which is soft form.


For projecting the computer screen data on the surface object such as wall or white board.

4. GPS

GPS device take the all information from GPS controller such as location and weather conditions, and releases the accurate output.

5. Braille Reader

These devices are designed for blind person, because Braille reader retrieves all output from computer which readable for blind people.

6. Plotter

This computer hardware device is used for producing the vector graphic output.

Memory/Storage Devices

The core task of the memory is storage and retrieval; this depend on the R/W operation of all types of memory.

Using storage devices, all data files and objects can be sorted, porting, and extracting. The information can be stored in temporarily and permanently. These devices are may be internal or external.

Function – The prime functions of memory and storage devices are storing all data in temporary and permanent nature. If we want to store data for long time then can be used the permanent storage devices such as hard disk etc. But some time computer store data in temporary nature for some time only for execution any task for some moments such as Ram etc.

There are two types of storage devices such as:

Primary Storage Devices:

Primary storage devices are designed for temporarily storage, but fastest to storage devices and small size as well.

 Examples are:

1. RAM

RAM is volatile storage memory in which all data are gone while getting turn-off computer.

Cache memory stores such data which use repeating frequently, so accessing speed of this memory is fastest to RAM.

Secondary Storage Devices:

Secondary storage devices used for the permanently storage of data, because if further time require any data then can be retrieved easily. The sizes of these components have large compare to primary storage devices, and storage capacity much high also.

Examples are:

  • Floppy diskette
  • Hard drive
  • Magnetic strip
  • SuperDisk
  • Tape cassette
  • Zip diskette
  • Blu-ray disc
  • CD-ROM disc
  • CD-R and CD-RW disc.
  • USB flash drive and jump drive
  • CF (CompactFlash)
  • Punch card
  • M.2
  • Memory card
  • MMC
  • NVMe
  • SDHC Card
  • SmartMedia Card
  • Sony Memory Stick
  • SD card
  • SSD
  • xD-Picture Card
  • Cloud storage
  • Network media
  • OMR

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

What are computer hardware components and their functions?

Computer hardware components refers to all physical components, which are needed to perform many functions by your computer system. There hardware components of computer are embedded along with a circuit board that works with a computer or laptop; involving the graphics card, CPU, webcam. motherboard, power supply and more.

How many types of hardware devices in computer are there?

Computer hardware devices are classified into four different Categories like as input devices, output devices, processing devices and memory/storage devices. Each one are explained above in this article; you can read them.

What are the hardware parts of computer?

There are different parts of computer hardware as internally and externally; including Mouse, Touchpad, Light Pen, Microphone, keyboard, Sound Cards, Onboard Audio, Biometric Scanner, Micro processors, GPU, Mother board, Network Card, Monitor, Printer, RAM, Hard drive, and more.

What are the 10 major computer hardware parts name?

In this blog post, already we have explored several computer hardware parts name in detail, you can check them with ease.

What are the parts of computer hardware?

You should be reading this article be carefully, then you will get the answer of your query; for examples – CPU, Motherboard, RAM, Power supply, Cooling fan, Hard drive, Monitor, Printer, and more.


In this blog post, we have completely covered about all different types of computer hardware parts and its functions. If this article is useful for you, then please share it along with your friends, family members or relatives over social media platforms like as Facebook, Instagram, Linked In, Twitter, and more.

If you have any experience, tips, tricks, or query regarding this issue? You can drop a comment!

Happy Learning!!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *