What is VPN? How Does it Work | VPN Protocols – Easy Guide

Hello Friends! Today, here we are going to cover all possible things about what is VPN (Virtual Private Network); and involving with how does a VPN work and VPN protocols with ease. This is unique article over the internet. So, we make sure that after reading this post; you will definitely fully learnt about What is VPN without getting any problem.

What is VPN (Virtual Private Network)?

A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a technology that enables users to establish a secure and encrypted connection over the internet. It creates a private network, or tunnel, between the user’s device and a remote server operated by the VPN provider. This connection encrypts the user’s data, protecting it from interception and ensuring privacy.


VPNs have several uses and benefits. They provide an additional layer of security, making it difficult for hackers, ISPs, or other entities to access or monitor your online activities. By masking your IP address, VPNs help preserve anonymity and protect your identity. They are commonly using to access restricted or geographically blocked content, allowing users to bypass censorship and access websites and services that may be unavailable in their location.

For businesses, VPNs offer secure remote access to company resources, allowing employees to connect to the corporate network while working remotely. This ensures that sensitive data remains protected, even when accessed from outside the office.

VPNs can easily use on various devices, including computers, smartphones, and tablets. They typically require the installation of VPN client software or the configuration of VPN settings on the device. Numerous providers offer the VPN services in both free and paid, each with its own features, server locations, and performance characteristics.

While VPNs provide enhanced security and privacy, it’s important to choose a reputable VPN provider and understand their privacy policies. It’s also worth noting that VPNs may slightly impact internet speed due to the encryption and routing processes involved.

‘What is VPN’ Tutorial Headlines:

In this section, we will show you all headlines about this entire article; you can check them as your choice; below shown all:

  1. What is VPN?
  2. Brief History of VPN
  3. How VPN Works Step by Step?
  4. What Are VPN Protocols?
  5. Different Types of VPN Protocols
  • OpenVPN
  • IPsec
  • IKEv2
  • WireGuard
  • Secure Shell (SSH)
  • SSTP
  • L2TP
  • PPTP
  • MPLS
  • Hybrid VPN
  • Shadowsocks
  • SOCKS5
  • Quantum-Safe VPN
  1. How to Choose the Right VPN Protocol?
  2. How to Use VPN?
  3. FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
  • What is the purpose of a VPN?
  • What can I use a VPN for?
  • Are VPNs legal?
  • Can a VPN slow down my internet speed?
  • Are VPNs completely secure?
  • Can I use a free VPN?
  • Can I use a VPN on all my devices?
  • Will a VPN hide my online activities from my ISP?
  • Can I use a VPN for torrenting or streaming?
  • Can I access geo-restricted content with a VPN?
  • Will a VPN protect me from phishing and malware?
  • Can I use a VPN to make VoIP or video calls?

Let’s Get Started!!

Brief History of VPN

VPNs, or Virtual Private Networks, have a history rooted in the development of secure communication protocols. The concept of VPNs dates back to the late 1990s when businesses sought secure remote access to their internal networks. 

Also Read: 60 Advantages and Disadvantages of VPN | Benefits & Risk

In the early 2000s, as internet usage expanded, VPNs gained popularity among individuals for their ability to provide online privacy and security. They enabled users to encrypt their internet traffic, protecting sensitive data from potential threats and ensuring anonymity. VPNs also became instrumental in bypassing censorship and accessing geo-restricted content.

Over time, VPN technology evolved, offering more advanced encryption methods and improved user experiences. The rise of smartphones and mobile devices led to the development of VPN apps, making it easier for people to protect their online activities on the go.

Today, VPNs have become widespread, with numerous providers offering their services to individuals and organizations. They serve a variety of purposes, including safeguarding privacy, securing public Wi-Fi connections, circumventing content restrictions, and allowing remote access to private networks.

As online privacy concerns and cyber-security threats continue to grow, VPNs remain a valuable tool for individuals and businesses seeking secure and private internet access.

How VPN Works Step by Step?

Here is a simplified step-by-step explanation of how a VPN (Virtual Private Network) works:

Client Initialization: The user initiates a connection to the VPN server by installing a VPN client on their device and logging in with their credentials.

Secure Connection Establishment: The VPN client establishes a secure connection with the VPN server using encryption protocols like OpenVPN, IPSec, or others. This ensures that the data transmitted between the client and the server allow encryption and protected from unauthorized access.

Data Encryption: Once, the secure connection get established, all the data transmitted between the client and the server in encryption form. Encryption converts the data into an unreadable format to prevent interception or eavesdropping by anyone trying to intercept the data.

Tunnelling: The encrypted data allow the encapsulation within an outer layer, creating a secure “tunnel” between the client and the server. This process helps to protect the data from being tampered with or monitored while it traverses the Internet.

VPN Server Connection: The VPN server receives the encrypted data from the client, decrypts it, and forwards it to the destination server or website the user intends to access.

Destination Server Access: The destination server or website perceives the incoming connection as originating from the VPN server, rather than the user’s actual device. This helps to hide the user’s true IP address and location, enhancing privacy and anonymity.

Response Relay: The VPN server receives the response from the destination server, encrypts it, and sends it back to the client through the secure tunnel.

Data Decryption: The VPN client receives the encrypted response, decrypts it, and presents it to the user in its original form.

By following these steps, a VPN creates a secure and private connection, protecting the user’s online activities, encrypting their data, and allowing them to access the internet with enhanced privacy and security.

What Are VPN Protocols?

VPN protocols are a set of rules and procedures that govern the secure and efficient transmission of data between a device and a virtual private network (VPN) server. These protocols determine how data will encapsulate, encrypted, and transmitted over the internet.

Each VPN protocol has its own strengths and weaknesses, including variations in security, speed, compatibility, and ease of use. The choice of protocol depends on factors such as the specific requirements of the user and the VPN service.

How Many Types of VPNs Are There?

There are several different types of VPNs, including:

Remote Access VPN: This type of VPN allows individual users to securely connect to a private network over the internet. It is commonly using by employees who need remote access to their organization’s resources.

Site-to-Site VPNs: Also known as a network-to-network VPN, this type of VPN enables the connection of multiple networks together over the internet. It is often using by businesses with multiple locations to create a secure and private network. 

Mobile VPNs: Mobile VPNs are specifically designing for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. They allow users to securely connect to a private network while on the go, ensuring data privacy and protection on public Wi-Fi networks.

Also Read: Types of VPN (Virtual Private Network) With Examples | When to Use Them

Personal VPNs: Personal VPNs, or virtual private networks, are tools that allow individuals to create a secure and encrypted connection to the internet. When choosing a personal VPN, factors to consider include the provider’s reputation, the number and location of servers available, the strength of encryption protocols used, and the provider’s logging policy. Additionally, consider the ease of use, customer support, and pricing plans.

Different Types of VPN Protocols

There are several VPN (Virtual Private Network) protocols used to establish secure connections and protect data transmission over the internet. Here are some commonly using VPN protocols:

Common VPN Protocols List

  • OpenVPN
  • IPsec
  • IKEv2
  • WireGuard
  • Secure Shell (SSH)
  • SSTP
  • L2TP
  • PPTP
  • MPLS
  • Hybrid VPN
  • Shadowsocks
  • SOCKS5
  • Quantum-Safe VPN


OpenVPN is an open-source virtual private network (VPN) protocol that provides secure and encrypted communication over an untrusted network such as the internet. It uses to establish a secure connection between a client and a server

With OpenVPN, users can create a secure tunnel between their devices and a remote server, allowing them to access resources on the private network as if they directly connected to it. This is particularly useful for remote workers, as it ensures secure communication and access to internal resources while connecting from outside the organization’s network.

OpenVPN can also deploy in different configurations, including point-to-point, site-to-site, or remote access VPN setups. It offers multiple authentication methods, such as passwords, certificates, or two-factor authentication, adding an extra layer of security.


IPsec stands for Internet Protocol Security. It is a set of protocols and standards used to secure Internet Protocol (IP) communications by providing encryption, authentication, and integrity verification for network traffic. IPsec operates at the network layer of the OSI model and using to establish secure virtual private networks (VPNs) or to secure individual network connections.

IPsec provides a framework for securing IP communications by encapsulating IP packets within a secure tunnel. It uses cryptographic algorithms to encrypt the data payload of the IP packets, ensuring confidentiality. It also supports authentication mechanisms to verify the identity of the communicating parties and prevent unauthorized access or tampering. Additionally, IPsec includes integrity checks to detect any modifications to the IP packets during transit.

The main components of IPsec are the Authentication Header (AH) and the Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP). AH provides authentication and integrity protection for IP packets, while ESP provides confidentiality, authentication, and integrity protection. 


IKEv2 stands for Internet Key Exchange version 2. It is a protocol using for establishing and managing secure communication channels, typically in virtual private networks (VPNs). IKEv2 provides authentication and key exchange between two parties, allowing them to securely negotiate the encryption parameters and establish a secure tunnel for data transmission.

IKEv2 incorporates a variety of security features, including strong cryptographic algorithms and mutual authentication mechanisms. It supports different authentication methods, such as digital certificates, pre-shared keys, or Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), providing flexibility in choosing the most appropriate authentication mechanism for a given scenario.


WireGuard is a modern open-source virtual private network (VPN) protocol for secure and efficient communication. It provides a simplified and lightweight approach to VPNs, aiming to improve performance while maintaining strong security.

This protocol uses state-of-the-art cryptographic protocols and algorithms to establish secure connections between devices. It operates at the kernel level, allowing for faster and more efficient data transfer compared to traditional VPN protocols like OpenVPN or IPSec.

WireGuard provides secure and encrypted tunnels for network traffic, ensuring the confidentiality and integrity of data transmitted between devices. It also supports dynamic peer discovery, allowing for easier setup and management of VPN connections.

One of the key advantages of WireGuard is its simplicity. It has a smaller code base, making it easier to review for security vulnerabilities and implement on various platforms. The configuration is straightforward, and it offers a smaller attack surface compared to other VPN solutions.

Secure Shell (SSH)

Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol using for secure communication and remote administration over an unsecured network. It provides a secure channel between a client and a server, allowing for secure remote login, file transfers, and command execution.

SSH uses encryption and authentication methods to ensure the confidentiality and integrity of data transmitted over the network. It is commonly using in systems administration and for secure access to remote machines.


SSTP stands for Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol. It is a VPN (Virtual Private Network) protocol that allows for secure and private communication over the internet. SSTP is primarily using for creating VPN connections between a client and a VPN server.

It provides a high level of security by encrypting the entire VPN connection, protecting the confidentiality and integrity of data transmitted between the client and the server. It natively supports on Windows operating systems, making it a popular choice for VPN connections in Windows environments

One of the notable features of SSTP is its ability to traverse firewalls and proxy servers that may block other VPN protocols, such as PPTP or L2TP/IPSec. SSTP uses the HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) protocol as its transport mechanism, which enables it to utilize the standard SSL/TLS encryption commonly used by web browsers for secure communication.


L2TP stands for Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol. It is a protocol using for creating virtual private networks (VPNs) over the internet. L2TP allows the creation of a secure tunnel between two devices, typically a client and a server, to transmit data securely. It operates at the data link layer of the OSI model and combined with other protocols, such as IPsec, to provide encryption and authentication for the VPN connection. L2TP is commonly using in enterprise environments and supported by various operating systems and network devices.

One of the key features of L2TP is its ability to support multiple protocols for data encapsulation. It can work in conjunction with IPsec to provide encryption and authentication, ensuring the confidentiality and integrity of the transmitted data. L2TP/IPsec has become a popular choice for establishing secure VPN connections.


PPTP stands for Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol that developed by Microsoft and various other companies as a VPN protocol to facilitate secure communication over public networks. It operates at the data link layer of the OSI model and encapsulates the VPN traffic within a PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) connection.

Due to these security concerns, industry experts and security professionals recommend using more secure VPN protocols such as OpenVPN or IPsec.


MPLS stands for Multiprotocol Label Switching Virtual Private Network. This technology provides the secure and efficient communication between geographically dispersed networks. MPLS is a technique that enhances the performance and reliability of data transmission by using labels to direct network traffic along predetermined paths.

In the context of VPNs, MPLS VPNs enable the creation of virtual private networks over a service provider’s infrastructure. It allows multiple customer networks to coexist and securely communicate with each other while maintaining privacy and isolation. 

MPLS VPNs offer several advantages. They provide a high level of security by isolating and encrypting customer traffic, making it difficult for unauthorized users to access the data. MPLS also supports Quality of Service (QoS) capabilities, enabling prioritization and efficient handling of different types of traffic, such as voice, video, or critical data.

Hybrid VPN

A hybrid VPN combines the features and capabilities of multiple VPN technologies. It is designed to provide a flexible and scalable solution that meets the specific requirements of an organization’s network infrastructure.  The goal is to leverage the strengths of each technology to create a comprehensive and robust VPN solution.

For example, a hybrid VPN setup might involve using a site-to-site VPN to connect multiple physical locations within an organization’s network while also utilizing a cloud-based VPN service to securely connect remote users or branch offices to the corporate network. This combination allows for efficient and secure communication across various network environments.

The advantages of a hybrid VPN include:

Flexibility: It offers the flexibility to choose the most suitable VPN technology for each specific use case or network segment within an organization.

Scalability: A hybrid VPN can easily scale to accommodate changing network requirements, whether it involves adding new sites, expanding user access, or integrating with cloud resources.

Enhanced Security: By utilizing multiple VPN technologies, a hybrid VPN can provide enhanced security measures, such as strong encryption, authentication mechanisms, and secure access controls.

Cost Optimization: A hybrid VPN allows organizations to optimize costs by leveraging different VPN technologies that offer the best balance between performance, security, and cost-effectiveness.

Seamless Integration: Hybrid VPNs enable seamless integration between different types of networks, such as on-premises networks, cloud environments, or third-party services.

StealthVPN: StealthVPN is a technology that aims to enhance online privacy and security by concealing VPN (Virtual Private Network) traffic to make it more difficult to detect and block. It employs various techniques to bypass network restrictions and Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) used by some governments, organizations, or ISPs to identify and block VPN usage.


Shadowsocks is a lightweight proxy tool that allows to bypass internet censorship and provide secure access to the internet. It operates by creating an encrypted tunnel between the user’s device and a remote server, enabling users to circumvent restrictions and access blocked content. Shadowsocks uses various encryption methods, such as AES, to ensure data privacy and security.

It is commonly using as a VPN alternative in countries with strict internet censorship.


SOCKS5 is a protocol that is used for routing network traffic between a client and a server. It operates at the transport layer of the OSI model and provides a method for client devices to establish a connection with a server and exchange data. SOCKS5 supports various authentication methods and offers features like UDP support, IPv6 compatibility, and enhanced security.

It is commonly used in applications that require proxying or tunneling network traffic, including web browsing, file sharing, and online gaming. SOCKS5 proxies are often used to bypass internet restrictions, increase anonymity, or improve network performance.

Quantum-Safe Protocols

Quantum-Safe VPN protocols refer to cryptographic protocols that are designed to resist attacks from quantum computers. Quantum computers have the potential to break traditional cryptographic algorithms, such as RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC), which are widely used in modern VPN protocols.

To address this issue, several quantum-safe VPN protocols have been proposed. These protocols utilize quantum-resistant cryptographic algorithms, which are algorithms that are believed to be resistant to attacks from quantum computers. Some commonly mentioned quantum-safe algorithms include:

Lattice-based Cryptography: Lattice-based algorithms, such as NTRU and LWE, rely on the hardness of problems related to mathematical lattices for encryption and key exchange.

Code-based Cryptography: Code-based algorithms, such as McEliece, use error-correcting codes as the basis for encryption and key exchange.

Multivariate Cryptography: Multivariate algorithms, such as Rainbow and HFE, are based on the hardness of solving systems of multivariate equations.

These quantum-safe VPN protocols aim to ensure secure communication even in the presence of powerful quantum computers. However, it’s worth noting that quantum-safe algorithms are still being actively researched and developed, and their widespread adoption in VPN protocols is still in progress.

How to Choose the Right VPN Protocol?

When choosing the right VPN protocol, consider the following factors:

Security: Look for protocols that provide strong encryption and secure authentication mechanisms. OpenVPN and WireGuard are popular choices known for their robust security.

Speed and Performance: Consider protocols that offer high-speed connections and efficient data transfer. WireGuard is known for its performance advantages, while protocols like L2TP/IPSec and SSTP may have lower speeds due to their heavier encryption.

Platform Compatibility: Ensure the VPN protocol is supported on the devices and operating systems you plan to use. OpenVPN is widely compatible, while protocols like IKEv2 and L2TP/IPSec are commonly supported on mobile platforms.

Firewall and Proxy Bypassing: If you need to bypass firewalls or proxies, protocols like SSTP and OpenVPN can be effective as they can encapsulate VPN traffic within commonly allowed protocols.

Ease of Use: Consider protocols that offer user-friendly interfaces and straightforward setup processes. IKEv2 and WireGuard are often praised for their simplicity.

Flexibility: If you require the ability to switch between different VPN servers quickly, protocols like OpenVPN and IKEv2 are worth considering due to their ease of configuration.

Potential Limitations: Some protocols may be blocked or restricted in certain countries or networks. Research any limitations or restrictions may impact your specific use case.

Ultimately, the choice of VPN protocol depends on your priorities, such as security, speed, compatibility, and ease of use. It’s recommended to evaluate multiple protocols and consider their trade-offs to find the one that best suits your needs.

How to Use VPN?

To use a VPN (Virtual Private Network), follow these steps:

Choose a VPN Service: There are various VPN providers available. Research and select one that suits your needs and budget.

Sign up and install the VPN Software: Visit the VPN provider’s website and sign up for an account. Afterward, download and install the VPN software or app on your device. Most VPNs support multiple platforms such as Windows, Mac, iOS, and Android.

Launch the VPN Application: Open the installed VPN app or software on your device.

Connect to a Server: The VPN app will present you with a list of available servers in different locations. Choose a server based on your preferences, such as a server in a different country to bypass geo-restrictions. Click on the “Connect” button to establish a secure connection.

Optional: Configure settings: Some VPN apps offer additional settings that allow you to customize your connection. For example, you may be able to select a specific protocol (like OpenVPN or IKEv2), enable a kill switch for added security, or configure split tunneling.

Verify your Connection: Once connected, the VPN app should display that you are now connected to the chosen server. Additionally, you may notice a VPN icon in your device’s status bar or system tray indicating an active VPN connection.

Start Browsing or Accessing Services: With the VPN connection established, you can now use the internet as you normally would. Your online activities are encrypted and routed through the VPN server, providing you with increased privacy and security.

Disconnect from the VPN: When you have no longer need the VPN; then you can disconnect accessing the VPN app by clicking on the “Disconnect” or “Disconnect VPN” button.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

What is the purpose of a VPN?

A VPN provides several benefits, including enhanced online privacy and security. It masks your IP address, encrypts your internet traffic, and allows you to browse the web anonymously. It also helps protect your sensitive data from hackers and other malicious entities.

What can I use a VPN for?

A VPN can be used for various purposes, such as:

  • Securing your internet connection on public Wi-Fi networks
  • Accessing region-restricted content by changing your virtual location
  • Bypassing censorship or content restrictions imposed by governments or organizations.
  • Protecting your online privacy and preventing tracking by ISPs or advertisers
  • Enhancing your online security by encrypting your data and preventing hacking attempts

 Are VPNs legal?

VPNs are legal in most countries, but there are exceptions. Some countries restrict or ban VPN usage to control access to information or maintain censorship. It is important to review the laws and regulations regarding VPN usage in your specific location.

Can a VPN slow down my internet speed?

Using a VPN can introduce some overhead due to encryption and routing through an additional server. As a result, it can potentially decrease your internet speed. However, reputable VPN services strive to minimize speed loss by utilizing high-performance servers and optimizing their infrastructure.

Are VPNs completely secure?

While VPNs provide an added layer of security, they are not foolproof. The security of a VPN depends on factors such as the encryption protocols used and the logging policies of the VPN provider. It’s important to select a reputable VPN service that prioritizes user privacy and security.

Can I use a free VPN?

Free VPNs do exist, but they often come with limitations and potential risks. Free VPN providers may have slower speeds, data caps, or inject ads into your browsing experience. Additionally, some free VPNs may not prioritize your privacy and may log your online activities or sell your data to third parties. It is generally recommended to choose a reputable paid VPN service for better security and performance.

Can I use a VPN on all my devices?

Yes, most VPN providers offer apps or configurations for various devices and platforms, including Windows, macOS, iOS, Android, and routers. You can typically use a single VPN subscription to protect multiple devices simultaneously.

Will a VPN hide my online activities from my ISP?

Yes, when you use a VPN, your internet traffic is encrypted, and your ISP (Internet Service Provider) can no longer see the specific websites you visit or the content you access. However, they will still be able to detect that you are using a VPN.

Can I use a VPN for torrenting or streaming?

Yes, a VPN can be used for torrenting and streaming purposes. It can help protect your privacy while downloading or sharing files through a torrent client, as well as bypass geographical restrictions to access streaming services from different regions.

Can I access geo-restricted content with a VPN?

Yes, one of the common uses of a VPN is to bypass geographical restrictions. By connecting to a VPN server located in a different country, you can make it appear as if you are browsing from that location. This allows you to access content and services that are typically limited to users in that specific region.

Will a VPN protect me from phishing and malware?

While a VPN can encrypt your internet traffic and protect your data in transit, it does not offer complete protection against phishing or malware. To stay safe from such threats, it’s essential to use a reliable antivirus software, keep your devices and applications updated, and practice safe browsing habits such as avoiding suspicious links or downloading files from untrusted sources.

Can I use a VPN to make VoIP or video calls?

Yes, a VPN can be used for VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) and video calls to secure your communication and protect it from eavesdropping. However, it’s worth noting that using a VPN may introduce additional latency and could potentially impact the quality of your calls.

Wrapping Up

Through this post, you have been completely educated about what is VPN (Virtual Private Network); and involving with how does a VPN work and VPN protocols with ease. If this post is valuable for you, then please share it along with your friends, family members or relatives over social media platforms like as Facebook, Instagram, Linked In, Twitter, and more.

Also Read: What is Computer Network? Examples and Uses of Computer Network!!

If you have any experience, tips, tricks, or query regarding this issue? You can drop a comment!

Happy Learning!!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *