Fixed Partitioning in OS | Static Partition in Operating System

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What is Fixed Partitioning in OS?

Fixed partitioning is also known as ‘Static Partitioning’. It is a memory allocation technique that is using in operating systems to divide the physical memory into fixed-size partitions, then each partition reserves for a specific process. The memory allocation executed at system boot time, and every partition remains dedicated to the certain process.

Fixed Partitioning in Operating System

This memory technique is simplest and easy to implement. So, it makes ensuring the minimum amount of memory for each process that is improving the security and stability of the system. However, it can make leading to internal fragmentation and limits the number of processes that is able to run concurrently, and each process needs a dedicated partition.

‘Fixed Partitioning’ Tutorial Headlines:

In this section, we will show you all headlines about this entire article; you can check them as your choice; below shown all:

  1. What is Fixed Partitioning in OS?
  2. How Does Fixed Partitioning Work?
  3. Advantages of Fixed Partitioning in OS
  4. Disadvantages of Fixed Partitioning
  5. Alternatives to Fixed Partitioning
  6. FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
  • How does fixed partitioning affect system performance?
  • How does fixed partitioning handle processes of different sizes?
  • Can fixed partitioning handle dynamic memory allocation?
  • Does fixed partitioning suffer from external fragmentation?

Let’s Get Started!!

How Does Fixed Partitioning Work?

Here, we will cover the working principle of fixed partitioning step by step that is using into operating system; below mentioned each one, you can read them:

Also Read: Dynamic Partitioning in Operating System

Partition Creation

  • The total memory has division into fixed-size partitions during system initialization.
  • Each partition has a specific size, and these sizes are predetermining based on system requirements.

Process Allocation

  • When a new process created or loaded into the memory, it allocates to a partition based on its size.
  • The process size should be equal to or smaller than the partition size to fit into a partition.


  • Once a process allocated to a partition, it can execute within that partition’s boundaries.
  • The process is unaware of other processes in different partitions, and each partition operates independently.

Contiguous Memory

  • Each partition represents a contiguous block of memory.

Limited Flexibility

  • Fixed partitioning limited flexibility because the partition sizes get fix in advance.
  • It may lead to inefficient use of memory if the processes have varying memory requirements, and the allocated partition size is larger than necessary for some processes.


  • Fixed partitioning can suffer from both internal and external fragmentation.
  • Internal fragmentation occurs when wasted space occurs within a partition due to a process not using the entire allocated space.
  • External fragmentation occurs when there are gaps between partitions, making it challenging to allocate larger processes.

Process Termination

  • When a process completes its execution, its allocated partition becomes available for new processes.

Advantages of Fixed Partitioning in OS

There are several advantages to using fixed partitioning in operating system, including:

Also Read: Mutex in Operating System with Examples

Simplicity: Fixed partitioning is a straightforward and easy-to-implement memory management scheme. The operating system simply divides the available memory into fixed-sized partitions, and processes allocated to these partitions as they arrive. This simplicity makes it easier to manage and implement.

Low Overhead: The overhead associated with fixed partitioning is relatively low. There is no need for complex data structures or algorithms to manage variable-sized partitions, as the partition sizes get fix. This result in efficient memory allocation and deallocation processes.

No Fragmentation: Fixed partitioning eliminates external fragmentation, which can occur when memory allocated and deallocated dynamically. In fixed partitioning, each partition is a fixed size, and there is no need to worry about arranging or arranging memory blocks to accommodate different-sized processes.

Predictability: Since the partition sizes are predetermining, it is easier for system administrators and developers to predict the behaviour of the system. This predictability simplifies system monitoring, troubleshooting, and performance tuning.

Fast Allocation and Deallocation: Allocating and deallocating memory in fixed partitioning is faster than to dynamic partitioning schemes. The fixed size of partitions allows for efficient management of memory without the need for complex algorithms to search for suitable memory blocks.

Simplifies Memory Protection: Fixed partitioning makes to simplify the implementation of memory protection mechanisms. Each partition can assign specific access rights and protection levels, making it easier to control and monitor the memory access of different processes.

Stability: Fixed partitioning can contribute to system stability because it avoids scenarios where a process may be unable to find a contiguous block of memory large enough to fit, leading to allocation failures. The fixed nature of partitions ensures that processes allocated memory with minimal contention.

Disadvantages of Fixed Partitioning

Here are some of the main drawbacks of fixed partitioning, below shown each one:

Also Read: Page Fault in Operating System with its Handling

Wastage of Memory: One significant disadvantage of fixed partitioning is the potential for wasted memory. If a partition is larger than the size of the process it contains, the remaining memory in that partition cannot use by other processes. This leads to internal fragmentation, reducing overall memory utilization efficiency.

Limited Flexibility for Varying Process Sizes: Fixed partitioning is less adaptable to processes with varying memory requirements. If a process is smaller than the partition size, it must still allocate the entire partition, resulting in wasted memory. Conversely, if a process is larger than the partition size, it cannot accommodate, leading to inefficient use of available memory.

Inability to Handle Growing Processes: If a process needs more memory than initially allocated in a fixed partition, it cannot expand beyond that size. This lack of flexibility makes it challenging to accommodate processes that dynamically grow during their execution.

Fragmentation Over Time: Over time, as processes get load and unload, the memory space becomes fragmented. Although fixed partitioning eliminates external fragmentation, internal fragmentation can accumulate as processes allocate to partitions, leading to inefficient use of memory.

Difficulty in Managing Priority Processes: Assigning priorities to processes can be challenging in fixed partitioning. Since each partition has a fixed size, it may not be straightforward to allocate more memory to higher-priority processes when needed, potentially affecting system responsiveness.

Underutilization of Memory: The fixed nature of partitions may result in situations where some partitions remain unoccupied while other processes are waiting for memory. This underutilization of memory can lead to suboptimal system performance.

Increased Turnaround Time for Large Processes: Processes that require more memory than the partition size may experience increased turnaround times or may be rejected, leading to reduced system efficiency and responsiveness.

Complexity in Partition Management: Although fixed partitioning is generally simpler than some dynamic memory management techniques, managing fixed partitions becomes complex when dealing with a dynamic workload of varying process sizes. Partition management may require additional bookkeeping and overhead.

Alternatives to Fixed Partitioning

Some alternatives to fixed partitioning in operating systems include:

Also Read: What is Semaphore in OS? Types with Examples & Their Operations

Dynamic Partitioning: This method allows the partition size to vary according to the process size, providing more efficient memory utilization and better support for varying process sizes.

Paging: In paging, the memory get division into fixed-size pages, and further each process divides into pages of the same size. The pages then load into the main memory as needed, reducing the memory overhead and improving the degree of multiprogramming.

Segmentation: This method divides the memory into variable-sized segments, allowing processes of different sizes to allocate memory more efficiently. Segmentation also enables better control over the allocation of memory.

Combination of Paging and Segmentation: This approach combines the advantages of both paging and segmentation, providing a more flexible and efficient memory management system.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

How does fixed partitioning affect system performance?

Fixed partitioning can affect system performance in several ways. Some of the effects include:

  • Fixed partitioning doesn’t handle varying process sizes efficiently and can result in inefficient memory utilization.
  • The degree of multiprogramming remains fixed, and it is very low since the partition size cannot be varied according to the process size.

How does fixed partitioning handle processes of different sizes?

Fixed partitioning allocates a partition that is equal to or larger than the size of the process being loaded. This can lead to internal fragmentation, especially if the partition size is significantly larger than the process size.

Can fixed partitioning handle dynamic memory allocation?

No, fixed partitioning does not handle dynamic memory allocation well. Once partitions are established, they remain fixed, making it difficult to efficiently allocate memory for processes with varying sizes.

Does fixed partitioning suffer from external fragmentation?

No, external fragmentation is not an issue in fixed partitioning because the size of each partition is fixed. However, internal fragmentation can occur if a partition is larger than the size of the loaded process.

Summing Up

Through this blog post, you have been fully educated about what is fixed partitioning in OS; involving with static partition in operating system with ease. If this article is useful for you, then please share it along with your friends, family members or relatives over social media platforms like as Facebook, Instagram, Linked In, Twitter, and more.

Also Read: Server Operating System: Types, Examples, and Working

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