What is 5G? Advantages and Disadvantages | Working Operations

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What is 5G Technology?

5G is the fifth generation of cellular network technology that is succeeding 4G. The main objective of 5G technologies is to develop for offering high upload and downloads speeds, lower latency, and increased capacity as compared to its predecessors. 5G is getting the theoretical peak speed of 20 Gbps, significantly higher as compare the 1 Gbps peak speeds of 4G.

5G Technology

This technology is getting for expecting to enable the large range of applications, such as self-driving cars, advanced gaming, live streaming, and real-time monitoring of environmental indicators. 5G wireless networks are virtualized, software-driven, and exploit cloud technologies; as well as getting to potential transform several industries, including healthcare, automotive, and manufacturing.

‘5G Technology’ Tutorial Headlines:

In this section, we will show you all headlines about this entire article; you can check them as your choice; below shown all:

  1. What is 5G Technology?
  2. Evolution of 5G Technology
  3. How Does 5G Technology Work?
  4. Types of 5G Wireless Services
  5. Difference Between 5G and 4G/3G
  6. 5G Security Features
  7. Parameters for 5G Wireless Technology
  8. What is Impact of 5G Technology in Real World?
  9. Advantages of 5G over 4G
  10. Disadvantages of 5G Technology
  11. Future of 5G Technology
  12. FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
  • Who invented 5G?
  • Where 5G was first launched in the world?
  • What is 5G technology and how it works?
  • How fast is 5G speeds?
  • What are the main features of 5G?
  • Is 5G available globally?
  • How does 5G impact the Internet of Things (IoT)?

Let’s Get Started!!

Evolution of 5G Technology

Here is an overview of the key stages in the development and evolution of 5G technology:

Also Read: Difference Between 3G and 4G Technology

1G (First Generation): Introduced analog voice calls, limited capacity, and coverage.

2G (Second Generation): Brought digital technology, improved voice quality, and basic data services like SMS.

3G (Third Generation): Introduced high-speed data services, faster data transfer rates, and support for video calling and mobile internet browsing.

4G (Fourth Generation): Brought substantial improvements in data speeds, capacity, and network efficiency, enabling faster download and upload speeds, low latency, and enhanced multimedia capabilities.

5G (Fifth Generation): Provides ultra-fast download and upload speeds, extremely low latency, and supports a massive number of simultaneous connections. It enables advanced applications like autonomous vehicles, virtual reality, augmented reality, and massive IoT deployments.

How Does 5G Technology Work?

5G technology performs all task with the helping of hardware, software, and advanced radio frequencies that offers the faster and more reliable wireless communication. The 5G network architecture is developed is getting to support the large range of services, like as enhanced mobile broadband, ultra-reliable low-latency communications, and massive machine-type communications.

working of 5G

The key components of a 5G core network include the 5G Access network (5G-AN), User Equipment (UE), and the 5G core, which uses a cloud-aligned service-based architecture (SBA) to support authentication, security, session management, and aggregation of traffic from connected devices.

The 5G network utilizes a technology called Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) for encoding, which allows it to bond between 100 and 800 MHz channels, delivering peak data rates of up to 20 Gigabits per second (Gbps) and average speeds of over 100 Megabits per second (Mbps). The 5G network also uses a Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) for better and ultra-fast internet connectivity.

The 5G architecture is designed for executing over the radio frequencies making the range from sub-1 GHz to extremely higher frequencies is called the “millimeter wave” (mmWave). It is expected to enable new use cases and transform the large range of industries.

Types of 5G Wireless Services

There are three main types of 5G wireless services, each with different characteristics and use cases:

Also Read: Use Cases and Applications of 5G Technology with Examples

Low Band 5G

  • Provides a blanket layer for nationwide coverage
  • Operates on frequencies that were once used for TV broadcasts
  • Offers baseline 5G speeds, approximately 20% faster than 4G LTE networks
  • Serves customers within hundreds of square miles, including rural locations

Mid Band 5G

  • About six times faster than 4G LTE
  • More available in major metropolitan areas
  • Offers higher data speeds than low band 5G
  • Suitable for applications requiring better performance and proximity to a tower

High Band 5G (mmWave)

  • Characterized by extremely low latency and approximately 10 times faster than 4G LTE networks
  • Enables immediate message transmission but requires close proximity to a tower
  • Operates on higher frequencies, enabling higher data transfer capacity
  • Suitable for applications like remote healthcare and high-capacity data transfer

Difference Between 5G and 4G/3G

The differences in between 5G, 4G, and 3G generation wireless technologies lie in several key aspects, including data speeds, latency, capacity, and the capabilities to support various applications. Here’s a breakdown of the main differences:

Data Speeds


Typically offers data speeds ranging from a few hundred kilobits per second (Kbps) to several megabits per second (Mbps).


Provides significantly higher data speeds, with average download speeds in the range of 10 to 100 Mbps and peak speeds reaching several hundred Mbps.


Offers much higher data speeds compared to 4G, with peak speeds potentially exceeding several gigabits per second (Gbps). Average speeds are generally significantly higher than 4G.



Higher latency, often ranging from 50 to 100 milliseconds.


Lower latency compared to 3G, typically ranging from 30 to 50 milliseconds.


Dramatically reduced latency, aiming for values as low as 1 millisecond or less. Low latency is crucial for applications that require real-time responsiveness, such as gaming and critical communications.

Capacity and Connectivity


Limited capacity for simultaneous connections, making it less suitable for densely populated areas.


Improved capacity to handle more simultaneous connections, making it more suitable for urban environments and crowded areas.


Significantly increased capacity, supporting a massive number of connected devices per square kilometer. This is essential for the proliferation of IoT devices and applications.

Frequency Bands


Primarily operates in the lower frequency bands (around 1-2 GHz).


Utilizes a broader range of frequencies, including mid and high-frequency bands.


Encompasses a wide spectrum, including low-band (sub-1 GHz), mid-band (1-6 GHz), and high-band or millimeter-wave (mmWave) frequencies (24 GHz and above).

Use Cases and Applications


Primarily designed for voice and basic data services.


Introduced high-speed data, enabling a wide range of applications such as video streaming, mobile gaming, and social media.


Designed to support a diverse set of applications, including augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), autonomous vehicles, industrial IoT, and ultra-reliable low-latency communication (URLLC).

Technology Architecture


Utilize circuit-switched and packet-switched technologies.


Emphasizes a more flexible and software-driven architecture, incorporating technologies like network function virtualization (NFV) and software-defined networking (SDN).

5G Security Features

These security features are designed to address the threats faced in today’s 4G/3G/2G networks and to enhance the protection of both individual consumers and mobile networks in the 5G era.

Also Read: Comparison of 2G vs 3G vs 4G vs 5G Technology

Encryption: 5G uses strong encryption algorithms such as AES, ZUC, SNOW 3G, and HMAC-SHA-256 to protect user data and network traffic from eavesdropping, interception, and tampering. It includes a separation of security keys between core network segments and fast synchronization of security contexts in the access network and the core network.

Privacy Protection: Privacy protection in 5G networks is ensured through the use of encryption and various other techniques. It prevents tracing of user equipment using current attack methodologies over the radio interface, protecting against man-in-the-middle and fake base station attacks. It also introduces a protection mechanism called home control, preventing various roaming fraud types and supporting correct device authentication to services.

Authentication and Authorization: 5G’s Authentication and Key Agreement method (5G AKA) includes a robust authentication mechanism to verify the identity of users, devices, and network elements. It supports pre-shared keys, certificates, and tokens, and doesn’t require physical SIM cards for credentials.

Network Slicing: 5G introduces network slicing, which allows the creation of virtual networks with specific performance characteristics, enabling better resource allocation and improved security.

Network Equipment Security Assurance: 5G includes security measures to ensure that network equipment is secure and free from vulnerabilities.

Parameters for 5G Wireless Technology

The parameters for 5G wireless technology include:

Data Rates: 5G provides 1-10 Gbps connections to end points in the field, offering a significant speed improvement over 4G and 4.5G networks.

Latency: 5G aims for a 1 millisecond end-to-end round trip delay, which is a 1000x improvement over 4G networks.

Bandwidth: 5G targets a 1000x bandwidth per unit area improvement over 4G networks.

Connected Devices: 5G aims to support 10-100x more connected devices per unit area compared to 4G networks.

Availability and Coverage: 5G targets a perception of 99.999% availability and 100% coverage.

Energy Usage: 5G aims for a 90% reduction in network energy usage.

Battery Life: 5G targets up to ten-year battery life for low-power, machine-type devices.

What is Impact of 5G Technology in Real World?

The impact of 5G technology in the real world is profound and extends across various industries and aspects of daily life. Here are some key areas where the impact of 5G is particularly significant:

Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB)

Impact: Faster download and upload speeds, providing a superior mobile internet experience.

Real-world Applications: Streaming high-definition videos, online gaming, and quick file downloads on mobile devices.

Internet of Things (IoT) and Smart Cities

Impact: Facilitates the massive connectivity of IoT devices, leading to improved efficiency, automation, and data-driven decision-making.

Real-world Applications: Smart city infrastructure, intelligent transportation systems, industrial automation, and environmental monitoring.


Impact: Enables remote patient monitoring, telemedicine, and real-time data exchange for better healthcare outcomes.

Real-world Applications: Remote consultations, wearable health devices, and timely transmission of medical data.


Impact: Enables immersive learning experiences through augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) applications.

Real-world Applications: Virtual classrooms, interactive educational content, and remote learning enhancements.

Manufacturing and Industry 4.0

Impact: Supports advanced industrial automation, robotics, and real-time monitoring.

Real-world Applications: Smart factories, predictive maintenance, and efficient supply chain management.


Impact: Enhances the shopping experience through augmented reality, personalized services, and efficient inventory management.

Real-world Applications: Augmented reality shopping experiences, cashierless stores, and personalized promotions.


Impact: Enables high-quality, low-latency gaming experiences through cloud gaming and augmented reality.

Real-world Applications: Cloud gaming services, augmented reality gaming applications.

Media and Entertainment

Impact: Supports high-quality streaming services, augmented reality experiences, and interactive content.

Real-world Applications: 4K/8K video streaming, augmented reality concerts, and interactive live events.

Energy and Utilities

Impact: Improves efficiency in energy distribution, monitoring, and management.

Real-world Applications: Smart grid management, real-time monitoring of utility infrastructure.


Impact: Supports precision farming through real-time monitoring and automation.

Real-world Applications: Smart agriculture, crop monitoring, and drone-assisted farming.

Advantages of 5G over 4G

The top 10 advantages and benefits of 5G over 4G are:

Higher Speed: 5G offers significantly faster download and upload speeds compared to 4G, with the potential for download speeds of up to 10 Gbps, which is 10 times faster than 4G.

Lower Latency: 5G provides lower latency, which means a shorter delay between the sending and receiving of data. 5G can offer low latency under 5 milliseconds, while 4G latency ranges from 60 ms to 98 ms.

Increased Bandwidth: 5G networks use wider bandwidths (100 MHz to 800 MHz) compared to 4G (up to 20 MHz), allowing for more data to be transferred at once.

Higher Capacity: 5G has the capacity to support a larger number of connected devices in the same geographic area compared to 4G. 5G will support around one million devices per square kilometer, while 4G can support about 4,000 devices per square kilometer.

Enhanced Connectivity: 5G offers improved connectivity, making it suitable for applications such as IoT, cloud-based gaming, and real-time communication.

Improved Efficiency: 5G technology is more efficient in terms of power consumption, which is beneficial for connected devices and energy savings.

Network Slicing: 5G introduces network slicing, which allows the creation of multiple virtual networks on a single physical network. This enables the customization of the network for different applications, improving overall efficiency and securit.

Massive MIMO: 5G uses Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technology, which improves network coverage, speed, and capacity compared to 4G.

Support for New Applications: 5G enables new applications such as augmented reality, virtual reality, and 4K video streaming, which require high-speed, low-latency connections.

Potential for Innovation: 5G has the potential to power the adoption of IoT, allowing industries to enhance their productivity and create new use cases for connected devices.

Disadvantages of 5G Technology

The disadvantages of 5G technology are as follows:

Also Read: GSM Architecture with Diagram in Mobile Wireless Communication

Security Concerns: 5G networks are susceptible to security threats due to the large volume of connected devices and the decentralized nature of the networks. This poses risks related to data privacy, protection, and potential threats to critical infrastructure.

Cost of Infrastructure Development: The transition to 5G requires substantial investment in infrastructure development, which could lead to uneven coverage, with 5G being available mainly in urban areas, potentially leaving rural and low-income communities behind.

Ecosystem Availability: The full potential of 5G can only be realized when a complete ecosystem of 5G-enabled devices and applications is available. The lack of such an ecosystem could lead to wasted investment and the need for further upgrades.

Potential Health Effects: While the impact of 5G on human health is a topic of ongoing debate, some experts have raised concerns about the potential health effects of the higher frequency radio waves used by 5G.

Uneven Coverage: 5G deployment may result in uneven coverage, with many areas, especially rural locations, not having access to 5G for years.

Line of Sight/Penetration Issues: High-frequency 5G signals can be easily blocked by common objects, requiring redesign of facilities or the use of alternative spectrum for consistent coverage.

Cybersecurity: 5G networks pose cybersecurity risks, as the expansion in bandwidth can make it easier for cybercriminals to steal data. The lack of encryption early in the connection process and the use of software in 5G infrastructure also pose security challenges.

Weakened Device Batteries: 5G connections can lead to increased battery drain in devices, potentially reducing battery lifespan and causing overheating.

Limited Global Coverage: 5G has limited global coverage and is primarily available in specific locations, with the expenses for setting up tower stations being high compared to other networks.

Future of 5G Technology

Some of the key aspects and implications of the future of 5G include:

Massive IoT Ecosystem: 5G is expected going to unleash the massive IoT ecosystem that is enabling networks to make communication along with the right trade-offs in between speed, latency, and cost; as well as supporting the significant increase in the number of connected devices per unit region.

Enterprise Networks and Private 5G: 5G technology shows a great deal of potential for many industries that rely on ultra-reliable networks, such as autonomous cars, smart cities, and manufacturing. Enterprises are evaluating 5G for a broad variety of use cases, and the ability to own private 5G networks is becoming a reality, allowing organizations to design networks that fit their needs and budget without being subject to unexpected charges or resource limitations.

Economic Growth and Job Creation: The wide-scale deployment of 5G communication networks, in combination with other connectivity solutions, is projected to create $13.2 trillion in global economic value by 2035, generating 22.3 million jobs in the 5G global value chains alone.

Enhanced Capabilities for IoT Systems: The using of 5G technology is expected to amazing enhance the abilities and performance of IoT systems that is paving the way for the large range of new applications and services.

Revolutionizing Enterprise Data Transmission: 5G’s network virtualization, slicing, and cloudification features are revolutionizing enterprise data transmission and wireless connectivity, offering comparable capabilities in terms of performance, reliability, and security to wired connections.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Who invented 5G?

5G technology is a result of involvement efforts from several researchers, companies, and standardization bodies worldwide. It doesn’t have a single inventor, but rather evolved through contributions from multiple entities.

Where 5G was first launched in the world?

South Korea was the first country to launch a commercial 5G network in April 2019. The country’s big three carriers, SK Telecom, KT, and LG Uplus, launched their 5G services simultaneously, with Samsung, Ericsson, and Nokia providing the base stations and equipment.

What is 5G technology and how it works?

In this article, already we have been explained in detail about 5 G wireless technologies and how does 5G work; you can navigate it.

How fast is 5G speeds?

The speed of 5G technology is theoretically capable of reaching up to 10 Gbps, which is significantly faster than the peak speed of current 4G technology. Actual average 5G download speeds are currently being measured between 1.4 and 14 times faster than 4G, with the potential for even higher speeds as carriers advance their 5G network buildout.

What are the main features of 5G?

Here are the main features of 5G technology including:

  • Increased Speed and Bandwidth
  • Low Latency
  • High Capacity
  • Enhanced Coverage
  • Network Slicing
  • Improved Energy Efficiency
  • Enabling Emerging Technologies

Is 5G available globally?

Yes, 5G deployment is ongoing globally, with many countries implementing and expanding 5G networks. However, the availability may vary depending on the region and local infrastructure development.

How does 5G impact the Internet of Things (IoT)?

5G significantly enhances IoT capabilities by supporting a massive number of connected devices, providing better coverage, and enabling low-latency communication. This makes it ideal for the widespread adoption of IoT devices.

Summing Up

Now, we can hope that you have completed educated about all possible stuffs about what is 5G technology and how does work it; as well as remarkable advantages and disadvantages of 5G wireless technology with ease. If this article is useful for you, then please share it along with your friends, family members or relatives over social media platforms like as Facebook, Instagram, Linked In, Twitter, and more.

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