Top 15 Components of IoT (Internet of Things) System

Hi Learner! Today, we are going to explain about several important components of IoT (Internet of Things) technology with their examples and functions. This is ultimate article over the internet. At the end of this post, you definitely will educate about fundamental components of IoT getting any hassle.

Introduction to IoT Component

Being enhancing the bandwidth availability and cost effective hardware, Internet of Things is going to change the industry landscape in scale. From construction, governance to insurance, medical, and BFS the use case of IoT are getting to popular day by day.


The Information Technology (IT) is using in multinational companies, banks, and other industries. Therefore software, hardware, and infrastructure needs of industry grade IoT different from domain to domain.

Why You Use IOT (Internet of Things)?

All devices/sensors and other components link with Internet; as well as they  managed by Internet.

This system can be worked as automatically, then sensors upload data regularly to cloud and many algorithms such as ML technologies can be implemented to this data. This is because; you are able to analyse the data perfectly and provide the sufficient results. Depend on the outcomes; the clouds can also execute pre-defined action in response to the sensor data. Security & privacy are also sound prove from our smart devices. So you can keep an eye at our house, workplace and so on.

Major Components of IoT System

From this post, we will try to describe different components of Internet of Things with their examples and functions. Below mentioned each one in detail, you can see them:

List of Key Components of IoT:

Let’s explore the list of all IoT components as follow them:

Also Read: 20 Features of IoT | Characteristics of Internet of Things

  • Sensors/ End Devices
  • Connectivity
  • Gateway
  • Central Control Hardware
  • Data Processing
  • Cloud System
  • Data Warehouse
  • Analytics
  • Control Applications
  • Security System
  • Machine Learning
  • User Interface

Sensors/ End Devices:

For any Internet of Things use case, the all components of the end edges are sensors. These sensors are able to capture the electric pulse otherwise analog signals that are passing via IoT ecosystems.

Depend on the use case as well as RFID, light sensors, electromagnetic sensors, temperature sensors, and more are implementing. For instance, smart wearable and smartphones enable along with sensors such as Gyroscope sensors, accelerometer, and etc.

All data can grab from these Internet of Things endpoints. Thus, this data is using in several domains such as medical stability, precision requirements, and so on. Sensors can select according to their use cases and precision requirements, then you should know few essential parameters like as:

  • Input’s reliability percentage should be sufficient
  • Accuracy of input readings
  • The objective of use case, for instance, sensors needed for a temperature dependent use case, and will be different from use cases based on the motions.
  • Depend upon the compatibility sensors and complexities are selected for a specific use case.


Further, all gathered data send to the cloud infrastructure but it requires the stable medium for getting transport. Sensors/devices can link with cloud system via several way of communication and transports like as satellite networks, Bluetooth, WAN, cellular network, and etc.

Each solution, you can select with few considerations and trade-offs in between power usage, bandwidth, range. Therefore, it is the most important things to choose the best connectivity method.


IoT Gateway helps to keep managing the bidirectional data traffic in between different networks and their protocols. Another purpose of gateway is to translate different network protocols and making ensure the interoperability of the linked devices and sensors.

Gateway can configure to perform the pre-processing of the gathered data from thousands of sensors locally before getting to transmit it to the next stage. In few cases, it will be mandatory cause of compatibility of TCP/IP protocol.

As well as, gateway provides the specific level of security for the network and transmitted data along with highly order encryption concepts. It works as the middleware in between devices and cloud to secure the system from malicious attacks and unwanted access

Central Control Hardware:

The control Panel helps to keep managing the two side traffic in between the different networks and protocols. Another purpose of this panel is to translate the different network protocols and make ensure the interoperability of the linked sensors and devices.

Data Processing:

When, all data gathered and it gets to the cloud, then software is able to execute processing on the acquired data. This may range from something simplest like as checking that temperature reading on the devices like as heater or AC is within an applicable range. But, sometime it could create many complications like as identifying objects by helping computer vision on video.

Cloud System:

Cloud storage is going to use to keep storing data that gathered from different sensors or devices. This computing refers to group of connected server that work regularly 24*7 over the Internet. Internet of Things, applications, and users produce vast volume of data that should maintain efficiently.

IoT cloud has many responsibilities like as processing, data collection, and data management. Next, this data can easily access as remotely by services and industries, that permitting them to take crucial decision at any time duration.

As simplest definition, the IoT cloud is networks of optimized servers that help to manage data at the higher speeds for enlarge number of different devices, analyse data, and manage traffic along with higher accuracy. But, Internet of Things cloud will not complete without using of distributed management database system.

Data Warehouse:

For getting meaningful insight, your data must extracted from the data storage to the data warehouse; it gets execute as manually otherwise using data warehouse automation software. Data warehouse system has filtered, cleaned, and structured information that is all destined for further usage.


Analytic is the concept of converting the analog data from millions of smart devices and sensors into helpful insights that can interpret and used for detailed analysis. Smart analytics solutions are most helpful to IoT system for management and enhancement of entire system.

Another main benefit of IoT system is the real time smart analytics that assists to engineers to finding out the irregularities in the gathered data and work fastest to avoid an unwanted scenario. Service providers are able to prepare for next steps if the information gathered perfectly at the accurate time period.

Large organization use this huge data gathered from IoT devices and utilize the insights for its future business opportunities. Information is most remarkable in any business model and predictive analysis making ensure success in specific area of the business line.

Control Applications:

As already mention about actuators that how they make action happen. Control applications are the medium path, through them; it is able to send out the relevant commands and alerts that will make actuator function. For example, control application are working as soil sensors signalling a dryness in the lawns, then actuators will take turn on the sprinkles to the begin irrigation.

Security System:

The heart of any organization IoT user is data. In the universal use case, the analogue and digital signal is receiving by sensors and then signal converted to a format at the upper of Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning components can work. In the complete flow of data, perfect security system and methodologies require to enforce.

This data is able to compromise at any layer beginning from the data acquisition to business insights derivations. We can adopt perfect security system by helping of strong encryption in many layers of communication, as well as using suitable firmware and anti-malware, and etc.

Machine Learning:

ML provides the opportunity to make more precise and essential models for handle the applications. Machine learning receives the patterns in the order for predict future outputs, processes, and getting behaviour by using of historical data that is  manipulate in the data warehouse. When, testing is successful of applicability and efficiency of new one model and then approved by data analysts; further new one model will be adopted.

User Interface:

Further, the information is created helpful to the end-user in few manners. This may be executed through an alert to the user like as notification, text, email, and more. For example, if temperature is getting to higher in the cold storage of organization then it will alert via text. Then, users may have a friendly interface that permits them to proactively check in one system. For instance, any user may wish to identify the videos feeds on many properties through web browser or phone app.

But, it cannot be considered always one way street; its depending upon IoT application; as well as users might also be capable to perform an action and affect the system. For example, any user can also adjust the temperature as remotely in the cold storage through their phone being app. But, few actions are capable to execute as automatically, instead of waiting for you to get adjustment the temperature, then system can it automatically through predefined rules.

Wrapping Up

We can hope that, through this article you have been completely educated about important components of IoT (Internet of Things) technology with their examples and functions. If this content is useful for you, then share it along with your friends, family members or relatives over social media platforms like as Facebook, Instagram, Linked In, Twitter, and more.

Also Read: 35 Real World Examples of IoT in Real Life | IoT Devices List

If you have any experience, tips, tricks, or query regarding this issue? You can drop a comment!

Have a Nice Day!!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *