What is Database? Types, Examples, and Uses | Applications of Database

A database is an organised group of structural information that is stored as electronically form in your computer system; it is usually managed by a DBMS (Database Management System). So, now here we will give you tutorial about what is database system with its applications, examples and uses; as well as many different types of database system with ease. This is ultimate article over the internet; so, after reading this post, you will definitely fully aware about what is database system without any obstacle. 

What is Database System?

A database is organized or systematic related information that is set up for easily getting to access, retrieved, management and updating. Database allows user to organize the data into rows and columns in the form of a table. It is easy to index the data and makes it easier to find and fetch it again as and when needed. Most of websites over the WWW (World Wide Web) are kept manage by helping of databases.


The databases are going to use for storing, accessing, and maintaining any sort of data. They gather all information on people, place or things. This information is collected in one site so that it can be analysed and observed.

Also Read: What is SQL? Uses, Applications, and Characteristics!!

Database System Tutorial Headlines:

In this section, we will show you all headlines about this entire article; you can check them as your choice; below shown all:

  1. What is Database System?
  2. Evolution of Database
  3. Types of Database with Examples
  4. Examples of Database System
  5. Application of Database
  6. Uses of Database System
  7. FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
  • What is database and its function?
  • What are the main functions of database?
  • What are the applications of database in daily life?
  • What are the 10 examples of database in real life?
  • What are the 10 uses of database system in daily life?
  • How many types of database system?

Let’s Get Started!!

Evolution of Database

  • The database had started along with a file-based system about 50 years ago.
  • Further the Hierarchical Database taken entry into existence and lasted until 1980. Then, IBM was introduced first database as named the IMS (Information Management System) that is based on it.
  • The first network data model was developed by Charles Bachman, in early 1960 and standardized in 1976. It was also known as the IDC (Integrated Data Store).
  • The Relational Database was developed in 1970.
  • Now, today it is getting more popularity of Relational Database and Database Management.

Types of Database with Examples

There are different types of database, which are available on the market to keep store different varieties of data; below shown each one in detail, you can check them:

Also Read: 20 Advantages and Disadvantages of SQL | Features & Benefits

Hierarchical Databases:

This type of database follows the progression of data as being the classified into the rank or multiple levels; where all data is divided depend upon the common point of linkage. So, two entities of data will be getting to low level in a rank and commonality will be assumed a higher rank. As follow image:


Another perspective is, data organized into a parent child relationship, where other addition of many data elements would be resemble as a tree. The children are connected to the parent record by helping of a field, and so parent record is connected the various children records.

Pros of Hierarchical Databases:

  • The relationship of all layers employ as based on hierarchical manner.
  • It is first database model that provided the data security by DBMS.
  • Quick to access data at the present at the upper of the tree storage

Drawbacks of Hierarchical Databases:

  • Not easily to scale up
  • Data elements need the lengthy traversal via a database.
  • Higher complexity
  • Less structural independence
  • Data independence
  • Not enabled with many too many relationships

Centralized Database:

This database allows to keep store data at the centralized database system, then it is to facilitate most comfort the user for getting to access the saved data from different remote sites via many applications. These programs have the authentication process to allow users to get access data with protect. For example: Central library that manage the central database of every library in an institute/school.

Pros of Centralized Database:

  • Less the risk of data management, because the all manipulation data will not affect a core data
  • It Keeps maintain the data consistency.
  • It offers the great data quality that allows companies to build data standards.
  • Less expensive because some vendors are needed to manage the data sets.

Drawbacks of Centralized Database:

  • It has a enlarge size that enhances the response time for retrieving data.
  • Not easy to modify, due to its extensive database system.
  • If any server gets fail, then whole data will be discarded.

Network Databases:

The network database is designed as based on a network data model that allows every record to be related to many primary records and various secondary records. This database deals as a flexible model of the relationalships in between the entities. The network represents to the relation in between other types of entities; as well as it is depended upon the traditional hierarchical database, except it lets every object to have several parents apart of a single parent.

Benefits of Network Databases:

  • It is conceptually simplest and easiest to design.
  • It is capable to manage the one to many and many to one relationships that are real assist in the modelling real life situations.
  • Easier to get access and flexible as compare to hierarchical model
  • It doesn’t permit a member to exist without an owner.
  • It isolates the programs from a complex physical storage details.

Drawbacks of Network Databases:

  • It is more complex the structure of this database, because in which all records are getting to maintain by the use of pointers.
  • It doesn’t support the automation of query optimization.
  • It is failure to get achieve the structural independence.

Distributed Database:

Just a opposite the centralized database system, in the distributed systems, all data is distributed over the different many database systems of an organization; and then these database are linked through the communication connections. And these connections allows to end-users for getting to access the data with ease. For examples are Apache Cassandra, HBase, Ignite, and so on.

Further, distributed database is classified into two categories like as

Homogenous Database: These database systems execute on same operating system and hardware devices; as well as underlying the use of same application process.

Heterogeneous Database: In which, all database systems are getting to execute on the different operating systems underneath the different hardware devices and applications procedures as well.

Pros of Distributed Database:

  • It allows the network transparency that means getting to freedom for user from operational information of the network.
  • Great availability, performance and reliability
  • It lets users unaware of the availability of fragments, vertical, or horizontal.
  • If one site gets fail, then other sites are capable to work properly.
  • Easy to add more data and enhancing the database size

Drawbacks of Distributed Database:

  • Most of queries execute on the single LAN site, then it may be increased the network traffic.
  • Many data formats are utilizing into different systems.
  • Enhance the complexity of system, because various DBMS products are getting to use in different systems.
  • Difficult to keep manage the system catalogue, because each database allows to store every information about its objects.

Object-Oriented Databases:

Object oriented database is the combination of the relational database and object oriented programming. There are many things that are made by using of object oriented programming language such as Java, C++ which are able to keep store in a relational databases; but it are also well-comfort for those stuffs. An object oriented database allows to organize around the object instead of the actions; and data rather than logic. For example – multimedia record in a relation database is defined as data object, unlike as an alphanumeric value.

Benefits of Object-Oriented Databases:

  • It can store different kind of data.
  • It lets the new data types to be created from the existing types.
  • It helps to get navigational access from the object is most common variant of data access in an object oriented DBMS; so it is most useful for recursive queries, handling parts explosion, and more.
  • It allows the tight coupling in between the applications and data in an OODBMS that makes the schema evolution most feasible.
  • It utilizes the single language interface in between the programming language and data manipulation that overcomes the mismatch of the impedance.

Drawbacks of OODBMS:

  • Less usage of object oriented database
  • It doesn’t contain the standard object oriented query language and any universal agreed data model.
  • Due to concurrency control protocol, it can impact the overall performance.

Relational Databases:

A relational database allows keeping store and organizing data point, which are related to one another; and it is based on the relational data model. A relation database refers to data sets as a group of tables and offers the relational operator for getting to manipulate data into tabular form. A table contains the columns along with one or multiple data categories, row, a set of data that is defined by the category. Every table consist the unique identifier otherwise primary key that identifies the information into the table and every row has also a unique instance of data for the categories that is defined by the columns. Examples of Relational databases are Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, MySQL etc.

Relational Database Properties are:

A relational model has four common properties that are called the ACID properties like as:

A (Atomicity): It makes ensure that data operation will be done either will success or with getting fail, like as a transaction will either be abort or committed.

C (Consistency): When you execute any operation over the data then its value before and after the operation must be preserved. For example – Account balance must be correct, before and after the transaction.

I (Isolation): It allows the concurrent users for getting to access data at the same time duration from the database, so it makes deal with isolation in between data should be isolated. For example – If lots of transactions execute at the same time duration, then one transaction should be invisible to the other transaction into a database.

D (Durability): It allows to make ensure that once it finishes the operation and commits the data, and data should be change remain permanent.

Benefits of Relational Databases:

  • Although, a relational database has poor performance, then still its speed is higher; cause of its simplicity and ease.
  • It consists the various tables, and specific tables can be created to be confidential.
  • A relational database is pretty simple as compare to the other kinds of network model.
  • This database doesn’t need any certain path for getting to access the data.
  • All data is stored as non-repetitive manner.

Drawbacks of Relational Databases:

  • Difficult to keep maintenance of a relational database
  • More expensive to set up and maintain
  • It is employed of rows and columns that need the sufficient physical memory, because every operation is executed as depend upon the separate storage.
  • A relational database uses the various servers, so its structure modifies and manage can be become more difficult.
  • Relational database is capable only to keep store data into a tabular format that makes deal with complex relationship in between the objects.

NoSQL Databases:

NoSQL is capable to manage the massive volumes of rapidly changing and unstructured data into different manner as compare to relational database along with row and tables. NoSQL makes deal with consistency in the concern of speed, availability, and partition tolerance. NO SQL DBMS is going to utilize the binary format of JavaScript Object Notation to keep store data into a database; and all data is stored in documents that makes turn are kept in a collection.

Pros of NoSQL Databases:

  • Best solution to manage and control the enlarge data sets at high speed with a scale-out architecture.
  • Higher scalability
  • With using of key-value, users are able to instantly get access data from the database.
  • It grabs the benefits of the cloud to deliver zero downtime.
  • Easy updates to schema and fields
  • Developer friendly interface
  • It can store unstructured, semi-structured, or structured data.

Drawbacks of NoSQL Databases:

  • It has not any standard defined rules and roles; and its query language and design of NoSQL databases are getting to vary in between the different No SQL products.
  • Not get fully backup in the NoSQL database. But, few NoSQL databases offer tool for taking backup; they are not proper capable that make ensure a proper fully data backup solution.

Personal Database:

This database allows collecting and storing all data on your personal computer that is smaller and easiest to manage. This data is mostly consumed by the same department of a company and can be accessed by a small team of people.

Pros of Personal Database:

  • It uses the low storage capacity, due to its smaller size.
  • Pretty simple and easy to control

Operational Database:

This database allows to create and modify the database in real-time. The main goal of designing it is to execute and managing the daily data operations in various businesses. For example – any company utilizes the operational databases to keep manage per day transactions.

Cloud Database:

Cloud database is getting to run over the cloud computing networks, instead of storing data on the local system otherwise buying the dedicated storage hardware, organizations are capable to install software to get access the huge amount of data in a cloud. Most of companies prefer to cloud database, due to easy to use. It can be easily enhanced the storage capacity; as well as taking back up the data over the remote server. Some cloud platforms are Microsoft Azure, Amazon Web Services (AWS), Kamatera, ScienceSoft, Google Cloud SQL, PhonixNAP, and more.

Cloud database has two variants like as:

Traditional: This database allows companies to host the database on their servers and IT staff troubleshoots any bugs.

Database-as-a-Service: This database is enabled with additional services such as automation and technical support.

End User Database:

The end user database allows to keep store data that is constructed by an end-user; then an end-user enables to make and manage data comes underneath this section. That means, user is capable to directly make interaction along with and handle the database that is saved in it. The all information as a summary is gathered into this database.

Benefits of End-User Database:

  • User can take all information about the product that might be software otherwise an application.
  • It allows to rapid development.

Drawbacks of End-User Database:

  • It is shareable database that is certainly designed for the end-user.

Commercial Database:

These are the premium version of the massive database that is designed individually for users who wish to get access the information for help. These types of databases are subject specific, and everyone are not capable to keep maintain, due to its enlarge information. It is enabled with active customer support; good times up and access speed, and so on. This database can be accessed by provided commercial links.

Benefits of Commercial Database:

  • Offer the premium support that helps to scaled to customers
  • It serves the extra scaling and storage capacity features.
  • Enabled with data backups and automation cloud-based management
  • Better efficiency and DB up-time

Drawbacks of Commercial Database:

  • No offer the free version, so you have to need buy a paid version.
  • Its billing may be extended.
  • It is the rare chance to get one time payments.
  • Difficult to get migration of database

Graph Databases:

The graph database is a group of the nodes and edges; whereas every node is going to use the represent an entity and each edge explores the relationship in between all entities. This graph database is a variant of NoSQL database that utilize the graph theory to keep store, map and query relationships. A graph databases are usually going to use for analysing the interconnections, for example – organizations use the graph database to mine data about clients from social media.

Pros of Graph Database:

  • Graph database allows user to detect the relationship pattern like as many people associated along with a personal email id, otherwise several people is getting to share the same IP address but placing at the different physical addresses.
  • It enables with relationship in between the information categories like as friends, customer interests, and buy history.

Drawbacks of Graph Database:

  • Graph database is not enabled with an MDM (Master Data Management) solution.
  • It is not capable to make the better relationship; but it offers the high speed data retrieval for linked data.
  • A graph database is not getting to optimize for enlarge volume analytic queries usually of data warehousing.

Open Source Databases:

This database allows to keep store information that is related to operations. It is mostly used at the field of marketing, customer service, employee relations, and more.

Enterprise Database:

Enlarge organizations or companies utilize this database to keep manage the huge data. It allows to assist the organization to enhance and improve their efficiency. This database can be get simultaneous access to users.

Pros of Enterprise Database:

  • It enables to support the multi processes.
  • It is capable to execute the parallel queries over the system.

Data Warehouses:

Data warehouse assists to a single version of truth for a organization for making a decision and forecasting. It is an information system that consists the commutative and historical data from one or multiple sources. Therefore, data warehouse method helps to simplify the reporting and analysis process of the organization.

OLTP Databases:

OLTP is another kind of database system that is capable to perform the fast query processing and maintaining data integrity in the multi-access environment.

Multimodal Database:

This database is to facilitate the data processing platform that is getting to support various data models that refer how to specific knowledge and information at the database must be organized and managed.

Document/JSON Database:

In the document oriented database, all data is stored into document manners, mostly using the JSON, XML, and BSON formats. Single record is able to store as much data as you wish, in any data type you suggest.

Examples of Database System

In this section, we are going to cover many examples of database in real life in detail; below shown each one; you can check them:

Also Read: What is MS Access? Uses, Applications, Examples, and Components!!

Oracle Database: Oracle database is introduced by Oracle Corporation that is based on multi-model DBMS. Oracle is usually getting to use for processing online transactions.

MySQL: MySQL is a relational database management system that is based on the SQL (Structured Query Language). MySQL is usually used for e-commerce platforms, data warehousing, and so on. It can be also used as a web database management system.

Microsoft SQL Server: It is also Relational Database Management that is designed by Microsoft. It is already pre-built on the SQL for using the database management systems.

PostgreSQL: It is an open-source Relational Database Management System, so it can be used as freely. PostgreSQL is usually used for data warehousing.

IBM Db2: It is also a relational database management system that is introduced by IBM. The main goal of developing is to keep store, analyse and retrieve data with efficiently.

Application of Database

Here, we will show you many applications of database, where are getting to use of database systems in different areas. As follow them:

Uses of Database System:

  • Railway Reservation System
  • Library Management System
  • Banking Sector
  • Education Sector
  • Credit Card Transactions
  • Social Media Platforms
  • Telecommunications Sector
  • Finance Sector
  • Military
  • Online Shopping
  • Account Section
  • Human Resource Management
  • Manufacturing Sector
  • Airline Reservation System
  • Agriculture Sector

Railway Reservation System:

The database plays the major role to keep record of ticket booking, train departure, and arrival status. When, any train is getting late then passengers get to aware it via updated database.

Library Management System:

There are lots of books in the library, therefore it can be more difficult to keep maintain all records of all books in a register. Then database is going to use to manage all information related to name of book, author, book issuing dates, and availability of book.

Banking Sector:

A bank allows their account holders make lots of transactions in a day without visiting to bank. Therefore, how it possible that by sitting at house we are able to send or get money via banks. It is possible, just by using the database that helps to keep manage all bank transactions.

Education Sector:

Today, it is getting to make examinations through online; therefore these colleges and universities keep all records related this via database management system.

Credit Card Transactions:

When, you are purchasing any items by using credit card, then all transactions are executed possible by database management system. All credit card users know very well about the importance of their data that are protected via DBMS.

Social Media Platforms:

Users are capable to get access the social media portal by putting the credential information. Most of users get sign up daily on the social media platforms like as Pinterest, Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, and etc. So, DBMS allows keeping store and managing all information that are related to their users.

Telecommunications Sector:

Database systems are also used by the telecommunication companies to keep record of all call details and monthly bills of post-paid plan.

Finance Sector:

Now these days, there are thousands of things to do with finance like storing sales, holding information and financial statement management, and so on. These are executed by using the database systems.


Database system also plays the major role in the military sector, because military keeps all records of soldiers and their other files that must be kept protect and safe. Therefore, database system serves the higher protection to military information.

Online Shopping:

Today, we are going to perform online shopping without wasting the time by visiting shopping by helping of database systems. The all items are added and sold only by helping of database system such as purchase detail, payment, invoice bills.

Account Section:

DBMS can be used in the account sections, where to need keep record about deals, holding and acquisition of monetary instruments; for example bonds and stocks in a data set

Human Resource Management:

Large organizations have many employees working under them. So, human resource management department maintain the record of every worker’s salary, overtime, tax, and etc. through database system.

Manufacturing Sector:

Manufacturing company make products and sell them in the market at the daily basis; so there have to need keep record of all information about products such as quantity, purchase, bills, supply chain management by helping DBMS.

Airline Reservation System:

Just similar as the railway reservation system, airlines also require the DBMS to keep record of flight arrival, departure and delay status.

Agriculture Sector:

Database system is also going to use keep maintain the record of machinery, seed, crops, livestock, and fertilizer.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

What is database and its function?

A database is an organised group of structural information that is stored as electronically form in your computer system; it is usually managed by a DBMS (Database Management System). The functions of DBMS enable with concurrency, security, backup and recovery, integrity and data descriptions.

What are the main functions of database?

The primary function of database is to gather and organized input data as rows, columns and tables. It is indexed to make it easily to find the relevant information.

What are the applications of database in daily life?

  • Railway Reservation System
  • Library Management System
  • Banking Sector
  • Education Sector
  • Credit Card Transactions
  • Social Media Platforms
  • Telecommunications

What are the 10 examples of database in real life?

There are most common examples of database system like as MySQL, Oracle, MongoDB, Redis, Elasticsearch, PostgreSQL, Microsoft SQL Server, Cassandra, MariaDB, IBM Db2

What are the 10 uses of database system in daily life?

There are many uses of database as follow them.

  • Online Shopping
  • Railway Reservation System
  • Library Management System
  • Banking Sector
  • Education Sector
  • Credit Card Transactions
  • Military
  • Account Section
  • Human Resource Management
  • Manufacturing Sector
  • Airline Reservation System
  • Agriculture

How many types of database system?

There are 20 different types of database, and already each one is explained above in this post; you can read them.

Final Verdicts

Now, i make ensure that you have been completely educated about what is database system with its applications, examples and uses; as well as many different types of database system with ease. If this article is helpful for you, then please share it along with your friends, family members or relatives over social media platforms like as Facebook, Instagram, Linked In, Twitter, and more.

Also Read: 30 Advantages and Disadvantages of Microsoft Access | Features & Benefits

If you have any experience, tips, tricks, or query regarding this issue? You can drop a comment!

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