What is MS Excel? Features & Uses| Excel Formulas List with Examples

Hello Learners! Today, we will explain all possible things about what is MS Excel with its Features and uses; as well as Excel Formulas List with Examples and their functions. This is unique article over the Internet; so after reading this content; you will definitely fully aware about MS Excel Features and Formulas without getting any obstacle.

What is MS Excel?

Definition: Microsoft Excel is a most powerful spreadsheet program that is designed by Microsoft. It is capable to organize data into columns and rows that allowing users to execute several mathematical functions, create visuals and graphs, and manage and analyse data efficiently.

MS Excel

Today, MS Excel is widely going to use for getting to analysis, data entry, data management, accounting, and budgeting. Excel is most compatible with multiple operating systems such as Windows, macOS, Android, and iOS; making it accessible across different platforms

MS Excel Tutorial Headlines:

In this section, we will show you all headlines about this entire article; you can check them as your choice; below shown all:

  1. What is MS Excel?
  2. History of MS Excel
  3. MS Excel Features (2003 to 2024)
  4. Uses of MS Excel
  5. Basic Excel Formulas List with Examples
  6. Advance Excel Formulas List with Examples
  7. MS Excel Functions with Examples
  8. FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
  • What are the key components of an Excel spreadsheet?
  • What is MS Excel and its features?
  • How do you enter data in Excel?
  • What are main 10 uses of MS Excel in daily life?
  • What is a cell reference in Excel?
  • What is a formula in Excel?
  • How can I protect a worksheet or workbook in Excel?
  • What is the difference between a workbook and a worksheet?
  • How do I freeze panes in Excel?

Let’s Get Started!!

History of MS Excel

Here’s a brief overview of the history of Microsoft Excel:

  • 1982-1985: Development of Excel began as “Multiplan” at Microsoft.
  • 1985: Excel 1.0 released for Apple Macintosh computers.
  • 1987: Excel 2.0 released for Microsoft Windows, one of the first Windows spreadsheet programs.
  • 1990: Excel 3.0 introduced toolbar buttons and incorporated Object Linking and Embedding (OLE).
  • 1992: Excel 4.0 introduced Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) for macro programming.
  • 1993: Excel 5.0 included expanded functions and improved charting capabilities.
  • 1995: Excel 95 (7.0) featured a redesigned interface, AutoFilter, and conditional formatting.
  • 1997: Excel 97 (8.0) introduced PivotTables and enhanced collaboration features.
  • 1999: Excel 2000 (9.0) introduced the “Office Clipboard” and improved data analysis tools.
  • 2001: Excel 2002/XP (10.0) enhanced smart tags and data analysis capabilities.
  • 2003: Excel 2003 (11.0) focused on collaboration and introduced ListCommands and ListObjects.
  • 2007: Excel 2007 (12.0) featured a revamped ribbon interface and expanded rows/columns.
  • 2010: Excel 2010 (14.0) introduced Sparklines and the Power Pivot add-in.
  • 2013: Excel 2013 (15.0) introduced “Apps for Office” and improved data modeling.
  • 2015: Excel 2016 (16.0) introduced new chart types and improved collaboration.
  • 2018: Excel 2019 focused on new functions and Power Query/Power Pivot enhancements.
  • 2018 onward: Excel in Microsoft 365 adopts a subscription-based model with regular updates.
  • 2021: Excel 2021, part of Microsoft 365, continues to receive updates and new features.

MS Excel Features (2003 to 2024)

Here, we will introduce the key features introduced in Microsoft Excel from 2003 to 2024:

Also Read: Advantages and Disadvantages of MS Excel

Features of Excel 2003

  • It was the last version to use the “WIMP” interface (Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointer), which featured drop-down menus and icons at the top of the screen.
  • It was the first version to introduce the Tables feature, allowing users to organize and analyze data more effectively.
  • The Mac version of Excel 2003 was released in 2004.

Features of Excel 2007

  • Ribbon System: Replaced the traditional menus and toolbars, providing a more intuitive and efficient way to access Excel’s features and functionalities.
  • Themes and Styles: Introduced themes and styles that surpassed the AutoFormat Table feature, allowing for the creation of professional-looking spreadsheets with unified color schemes and predefined formats based on the chosen theme.
  • Improved Charts and Graphs: Charts improved with more options, a neater look, and the ability to copy-paste charts into Microsoft Word or PowerPoint.
  • Enhanced Sorting and Filtering: Added the ability to sort information by color, filter by color or dates, select multiple items to filter, and filter data in PivotTables. The limits on how many filters could be used concurrently were increased from 3 to 64.
  • New File Formats: Introduced XML-based file formats, known as the Microsoft Office Open XML formats, for Word, Excel, and PowerPoint, facilitating integration with external data sources.

Excel 2010 Features

Microsoft Excel 2010 introduced several new features and improvements, including:

  • Sparklines: Introduced small charts that fit within a cell, allowing users to visualize data trends at a glance.
  • Slicers: Introduced a new way to filter PivotTable data, making it easier to analyze large datasets.
  • Improved Tables and Filters: Tables and filters improved with new features such as the ability to sort and filter by color, select multiple items to filter, and filter data in PivotTables.
  • Paste Previews: Introduced a new feature that allows users to preview how data will look before pasting it into a worksheet.
  • Improved Conditional Formatting: Conditional formatting improved with new options such as data bars, color scales, and icon sets.
  • Customizable Ribbon: Introduced the ability to customize the Ribbon interface, allowing users to create custom tabs and groups with frequently used commands.

Features of Excel 2013

  • Start Screen: A new Start Screen that helps users get to work more quickly, with recently used worksheets and the ability to access files from a disk or the cloud.
  • Flash Fill: A new feature that automatically fills in values based on patterns it recognizes in adjacent columns.
  • Slicers: A new way to filter PivotTable data, making it easier to analyze large datasets.
  • Quick Analysis Tool: A new tool that lets users convert data into a chart or table in two steps or less, with preview options for conditional formatting, sparklines, or charts.
  • Recommended Charts and PivotTables: Tools that make complex tasks easier to perform, with recommended charts and pivot tables based on the data.
  • Improved Chart Formatting: Chart formatting was improved with new options such as chart elements, chart styles, and chart filters.

Features of Excel 2019

  • New Functions: Excel 2019 includes six new or improved functions, including IFS, SWITCH, TEXTJOIN, CONCAT, MAXIFS, and MINIFS.
  • Data Import Tool Improvements: The Power Query data import tool was renamed Get & Transform in Excel 2016, but the name reverted to Power Query in Excel 2019. The tool was also improved with new features.
  • Improved Map Charts: Map charts were improved with new features such as support for geographic data types and the ability to customize the color scale.
  • New Icons: Excel 2019 offers over 500 new built-in SVG-compliant icons for creating professional-looking spreadsheets.
  • Improved Accessibility: Excel 2019 includes better accessibility features, such as improved screen reader support and the ability to use keyboard shortcuts to navigate the Ribbon.

Excel 2021 Features 

  • Dynamic Arrays: Excel 2021 introduced dynamic arrays, allowing for more flexible and powerful data manipulation.
  • Automatic Data Analysis and Natural Language Queries: These features enable users to perform automatic data analysis and use natural language queries to interact with their data.
  • Linked Data Types: This feature was expanded in Excel 2021, providing users with more capabilities for working with linked data types.
  • Custom Data Types: Excel 2021 introduced custom data types, allowing users to define their own data types for more effective data management.

Features of Excel 2022

  • Dynamic arrays and 14 new functions for text and arrays were included.

Uses of MS Excel

Microsoft Excel is used across a wide range of industries and disciplines due to its versatility and powerful features. Here are some specific applications of Microsoft Excel:

Also Read: Advantages and Disadvantages of Microsoft Word

Data Entry and Storage: Excel serves as a digital ledger, allowing users to input and store data in a structured format within cells, rows, and columns.

  • Example: Entering sales figures, inventory levels, or survey responses.

Data Analysis and Visualization: Excel provides tools for analyzing data, creating charts, graphs, and pivot tables to visually represent trends and patterns.

  • Example: Analyzing sales trends over time using a line chart or creating a pie chart to show the distribution of expenses.

Financial Management: Excel is widely used for budgeting, financial planning, and performing various financial calculations.

  • Example: Creating a monthly budget, calculating loan repayments, or projecting future earnings.

Mathematical and Statistical Calculations: Excel includes a range of mathematical and statistical functions for performing calculations.

  • Example: Calculating averages, standard deviations, or using regression analysis for predicting trends.

Project Management: Excel is used to create project timelines, track tasks, and manage project resources.

  • Example: Developing a Gantt chart to visualize project timelines or using Excel for resource allocation.

Inventory Management: Excel aids in tracking inventory levels, managing stock, and generating reports for analysis.

  • Example: Creating an inventory spreadsheet to monitor stock levels and reorder supplies.

Task Tracking and To-Do Lists: Excel is employed for creating task lists, tracking progress, and managing deadlines.

  • Example: Developing a project task list with assigned deadlines and completion status.

Contact and Customer Management: Excel is used to create and manage databases for contact lists, customer information, and client details.

  • Example: Maintaining a customer database with contact information and purchase history.

Time Tracking: Excel can be used to create time sheets and track hours worked, making it useful for businesses that bill clients based on hours.

  • Example: Recording employee work hours and calculating total billable hours.

HR and Employee Records: Excel aids in managing employee records, tracking attendance, and recording employee performance.

  • Example: Creating an employee database with details such as contact information, job roles, and performance metrics.

Educational Purposes: Excel is used in educational settings for teaching and learning various subjects, including mathematics, statistics, and business studies.

  • Example: Creating spreadsheets for students to practice mathematical equations or analyze data for research projects.

Scientific Research: Excel is employed for managing and analyzing scientific data, recording experiments, and creating graphs.

  • Example: Recording and analyzing data from a scientific experiment or research study.

Healthcare Data Management: Excel is used for recording patient data, managing medical records, and analyzing healthcare statistics.

  • Example: Creating a spreadsheet to track patient appointments, medical history, and treatment plans.

Quality Control and Assurance: Excel supports monitoring and maintaining quality standards, recording test results, and analyzing quality control data.

  • Example: Tracking product defects, conducting statistical quality control analysis, and creating control charts.

Supply Chain Management: Excel is used for tracking and analyzing supply chain data, managing logistics, and optimizing inventory.

  • Example: Creating a supply chain dashboard to monitor inventory levels, shipments, and supplier performance.

Statistical Analysis and Research: Excel is utilized for conducting statistical analysis, hypothesis testing, and research studies.

  • Example: Analyzing survey data, conducting regression analysis, or performing statistical tests on experimental results.

Real Estate Analysis: Excel is used for analyzing property values, creating mortgage amortization schedules, and managing real estate portfolios.

  • Example: Creating financial models to analyze the return on investment for real estate properties.

Risk Management: Excel supports assessing and managing financial risks, creating risk models, and analyzing risk factors.

  • Example: Developing a risk assessment matrix, calculating risk exposure, and creating risk mitigation plans.

Event Planning: Excel aids in planning and managing events, tracking budgets, and managing guest lists.

  • Example: Creating an event budget spreadsheet, tracking expenses, and managing RSVPs.

Legal Case Management: Excel is used for managing legal cases, tracking case details, and analyzing legal data.

  • Example: Creating a case management spreadsheet to track case status, court dates, and legal expenses.

Personal Finance: Excel is used for personal finance management, including budgeting, expense tracking, and investment analysis.

  • Example: Creating a personal budget spreadsheet, tracking income and expenses, and analyzing spending patterns.

Data Import and Export: Excel facilitates the import and export of data from various sources, enabling data integration.

  • Example: Importing data from external databases, text files, or online sources for analysis in Excel.

Automation and Workflow Optimization: Excel allows users to automate repetitive tasks through the creation and execution of macros, streamlining workflows.

  • Example: Automating data cleaning processes, repetitive calculations, or report generation.

Excel Formulas List Basic to Advance

Here, we are going to introduce some common basic to advance MS Excel formulas; which are using in your daily life, including:

Basic Excel Formulas List with Examples

Basic Excel formulas mean arithmetic operations, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Some important Excel formulas are:

Also Read: What is Word Processing Software? Examples, Applications & Types


Example: =SUM(A1:A5) (Adds up the values in cells A1 through A5)


Example: =AVERAGE(B1:B10) (Calculates the average of values in cells B1 through B10)


Example: =COUNT(C1:C8) (Counts the number of cells in the range C1 through C8 that contain numbers)


Example: =MAX(D1:D6) (Finds the highest value in the range D1 through D6)


Example: =MIN(E1:E7) (Finds the lowest value in the range E1 through E7)


Example: =IF(F1>50, “Pass”, “Fail”) (Returns “Pass” if the value in F1 is greater than 50; otherwise, returns “Fail”)


Example: =VLOOKUP(G1, A1:B10, 2, FALSE) (Looks up the value in G1 in the first column of the range A1:B10 and returns the corresponding value from the second column)


Example: =HLOOKUP(H1, A1:D5, 3, FALSE) (Looks up the value in H1 in the first row of the range A1:D5 and returns the corresponding value from the third row)


Example: =INDEX(C1:C10, MATCH(“SearchValue”, A1:A10, 0)) (Returns the value in the range C1:C10 corresponding to the position where “SearchValue” is found in the range A1:A10)


Example: =CONCATENATE(A1, ” “, B1) (Combines the values in cells A1 and B1 with a space in between)


Example: =LEN(D1) (Returns the number of characters in the cell D1)


Example: =LEFT(E1, 3) (Returns the leftmost 3 characters from the value in cell E1)


Example: =RIGHT(F1, 2) (Returns the rightmost 2 characters from the value in cell F1)


Example: =TRIM(G1) (Removes extra spaces from the value in cell G1)


Example: =ROUND(H1, 2) (Rounds the value in cell H1 to 2 decimal places)

Advance Excel Formulas List with Examples

These formulas showcase more advanced functionality and can be powerful tools for complex data analysis and manipulation in Excel.

INDEX/MATCH (Advanced)

Example: =INDEX(C1:C10, MATCH(MAX(A1:A10), A1:A10, 0))

(Returns the value in the range C1:C10 corresponding to the maximum value in the range A1:A10)


Example: =SUMIFS(D1:D10, A1:A10, “Category1”, B1:B10, “>50”)

(Sums the values in D1:D10 where corresponding values in A1:A10 are “Category1” and values in B1:B10 are greater than 50)


Example: =COUNTIFS(A1:A10, “Category2”, B1:B10, “<30”)

(Counts the number of cells where values in A1:A10 are “Category2” and values in B1:B10 are less than 30)

VLOOKUP (with Approximate Match)

Example: =VLOOKUP(G1, A1:B10, 2, TRUE)

(Looks up the value in G1 in the first column of the range A1:B10 and returns an approximate match from the second column)

HLOOKUP (with Approximate Match)

Example: =HLOOKUP(H1, A1:D5, 3, TRUE)

(Looks up the value in H1 in the first row of the range A1:D5 and returns an approximate match from the third row)


Example: =SUMPRODUCT(A1:A5, B1:B5)

(Calculates the sum of the product of corresponding values in ranges A1:A5 and B1:B5)


Example: =IFERROR(1/0, “Error”)

(Returns “Error” if there is an error in the calculation, otherwise performs the calculation)

ARRAY FORMULAS (Ctrl+Shift+Enter)

Example: {=SUM(A1:A5*B1:B5)}

(Calculates the sum of the product of corresponding values in arrays A1:A5 and B1:B5)


Example: =SUM(OFFSET(A1, 0, 0, 3, 1))

(Sums the values in a range starting from A1 and extending 3 rows down and 1 column across)


Example: =INDIRECT(“Sheet1!A1”)

(Returns the value in cell A1 of Sheet1)

MATCH (with Wildcard)

Example: =MATCH(“Apples*”, A1:A10, 0)

(Finds the position of the first cell in the range A1:A10 that starts with “Apples”)


Example: =CHOOSE(A1, “Option 1”, “Option 2”, “Option 3”)

(Returns one of the specified options based on the value in cell A1)

MS Excel Functions with Examples

In Excel, functions are categorized into different types based on their purposes and the kind of calculations they perform. Here are some common types of functions in Excel:

Also Read: Top 20 Features of Word Processor

Math and Trigonometry Functions


Used for basic mathematical and trigonometric calculations.

Text Functions


Used for manipulating and analyzing text strings.

Logical Functions


Used for making logical comparisons and decisions in formulas.

Date and Time Functions


Used for working with dates and times.

Lookup and Reference Functions


Used for looking up values in tables or arrays and working with cell references.

Statistical Functions


Used for analyzing and summarizing data statistically.

Financial Functions

Examples: PV, FV, NPV, IRR, RATE

Used for financial calculations such as present value, future value, and internal rate of return.

Database Functions


Used for performing calculations on data in a structured database format.

Engineering Functions


Used for specialized engineering calculations.

Information Functions


Used for obtaining information about the content and format of cells.

Array Formulas

Examples: {SUM(A1:A5*B1:B5)}, {=TRANSPOSE(A1:A5)}, {=AVERAGE(IF(B1:B5>10, C1:C5))}

Used for performing operations on arrays of data.

Math Functions (Advanced)


Used for more advanced mathematical and statistical operations.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

What are the key components of an Excel spreadsheet?

The key components include cells (intersection of rows and columns), columns (labelled with letters), rows (labelled with numbers), and worksheets (tabs at the bottom of the Excel window).

What is MS Excel and its features?

Microsoft Excel is a special spreadsheet program that helping out users for getting to create, manipulate, and analyse data by using a grid of cells arranged in rows and columns. Its main features include data entry, calculations, charts, and graphs, facilitating organization, analysis, and visualization of numerical information.

How do you enter data in Excel?

Click on a cell and start typing. Press Enter to move to the next cell or use the arrow keys to navigate.

What are main 10 uses of MS Excel in daily life?

Above in this article, we already shown various uses of excel in different areas; you can check them.

What is a cell reference in Excel?

A cell reference is a combination of the column letter and row number that identifies a specific cell. For example, “A1” refers to the cell in the first column and first row.

What is a formula in Excel?

Formula is an equation that performs calculations on values in a worksheet. It begins with an equal sign (=) followed by the mathematical expression.

How can I protect a worksheet or workbook in Excel?

Go to the “Review” tab, click on “Protect Sheet” or “Protect Workbook,” and set a password to restrict access or editing.

What is the difference between a workbook and a worksheet?

A workbook is the entire Excel file, while a worksheet is a single tab within the workbook. A workbook can contain multiple worksheets.

How do I freeze panes in Excel?

Go to the “View” tab, click on “Freeze Panes,” and choose either “Freeze Top Row” or “Freeze First Column” to keep specific rows or columns visible while scrolling.

Final Lines

Now, we can hope that you have been fully educated about what is MS Excel with its Features and uses; as well as Excel Formulas List with Examples and their functions. If this article is useful for you, then please share it along with your friends, family members or relatives over social media platforms like as Facebook, Instagram, Linked In, Twitter, and more.

Also Read: What is Database? Types, Examples, Uses, & Applications

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