Processing Devices of Computer: Types, Examples, Functions, Uses

Processing Devices of Computer: Types, Examples, Functions, Uses

What is Processing Device

Definition: The processing device is the computer’s hardware component that helps to handle the storage and retrieval of the information.

In the Computer, processing devices play major role in the processing operations. These devices are used to process the data with using of instructions from the program.

CPU is capable to execute all instructions, which can be input and output operations or logical comparisons or numerical.


They provide all co-ordinations tasks of other computer units and to make ensure that everything work properly.

Types of Processing Devices of Computer

There are list of different types of processing devices of computer; below explain each one –

Examples of Processing Devices of Computer

GPU (Graphics Processing Unit)


GPU stands for “Graphics Processing Unit” that is a computer integrated chip that helps to render the graphics and images with using of performing rapid mathematical calculation. It is used for both purposes in personal and professional computing. GPU has responsibility for getting to render 2D and 3D images, video and animations.

  • Due to high-computational ability of GPU, it is able to accelerate the machine learning.
  • GPU allows to improve the performance for video editing and creation because parallel processing of a GPU is getting to render of graphic and video with high definition.
  • Due to better performance of GPU, it is used in cryptocurrencies and bitcoin.
  • GPU has two variants like as integrated and discrete. Integrated GPU is installed alongside the CPU, where as discrete GPU is mounted on the separate circuit board.



Microprocessor is a heart of the computer that is installed as a single integrated circuit inside the computer. It has responsible for performing all arithmetic and logical operations.

Read Also – What is Microprocessor with their Types and Applications

Sound Card


Sound card is a hardware component of computer that is installed on the motherboard, and it delivers the audio input and output capabilities. Mostly, sound card has at least single analog line input and one stereo line output connection.

Sound Card Ports:


  • Digital Out (Yellow): It is used for loudspeakers.
  • Sound in or line in (Blue): It is used for making connection for external audio sources like as CD player, record player, etc.
  • Microphone (Pink): Used for microphone or headphones.
  • Sound out or line out (Green): It is also used for speaker otherwise headphones as a primary sound connection.
  • MIDI or joystick (15 pin yellow connector): It is used to connect external MIDI keyboard or joystick.

Video Card


Video card is an expansion card that is embedded on the computer’s motherboard. Video card has other alternative names like as “Display Adapter“, “Graphics Card“, “Video Adapter“, “Video Board“, or “Video Controller“. It is used to display the images on the monitor because without it, user would not able to see any pictures. 

Mostly, gamer prefer the video card for getting extra processing power and high definition graphic.

CPU (Central Processing Unit)


CPU is a primary component of the computer system that helps to perform all types of data processing operations. It has responsible to manage operations of all components of computer.

Read Also – What is CPU with their Components and Functions



Clock is used inside of the computer as a microchip that helps to regulate the timing and speed of the entire computer’ functions. The computer processor’s speed is also measured into clock speed like as 1 MHz is one million cycles and 2 GHz is two billion cycles.

System timer or system clock is getting regularly pulse that helps computer clock keep the accurate time.



A chipset is a set of integrated circuit that helps to work together to deliver a single function and so manufactured and sold as a unit. For example – one chipset is a combination of all microchips, which are needed to provide the communications controller in between the processor and memory as well as other devices of the computer.

You can say that chipset helps to control the all flow of data throughout the computer.



Motherboard is the main circuit board of the computer system, and it is also called the “Main board or Logic board”.  Every motherboard consist the group of chip and controller known as chipset.

Read Also – What is Motherboard with their Components and Functions

Data Bus


Data bus is installed on the motherboard, as well as it is group of wires that is used by CPU (Central Processing Unit) to transmit data in between all components of computer. It works like as device’s engine. Data bus is also capable to transfer data in between two different computers.

Bus controllers help to regulate the speed at which all information is transferred in between all computer parts.

Each computer system has two types of data buses like as internal and external data buses.

Expansion Slots


An expansion slots refers to all slots which are installed on the motherboard, and they are used to embed the expansion card for expanding the computer’s functionality such as video card, network card, or sound card.

Expansion cards can be inserted directly into expansion port so that the motherboard is directly able to access the computer hardware devices.

Few expansion slots are – PCI, AGP, AMR, CNR, ISA, EISA, and VESA

Network Card


Network card is a hardware component of computer that allows to make communication in between multiple computers through local area network (LAN). If, you want to make communication over large scale network then can be used Internet Protocol (IP).

It has other alternative name “Network interface controller, network adapter or LAN adapter“.

Read Also – Network Interface Card with their Types and Functions

Address Bus


Address bus is a group of wires that allows to store addresses only is the address bus. The address bus flows the data with uni-directional concept; it means that it can pass an address only one way, from CPU to Random Access Memory (RAM).

Main aim of address bus is to identify an address of location in the primary memory, where to be read from or written to. In the main memory, each location contains the own unique address, that is called as the “Addressability”.

Random Access Memory


RAM (Random Access Memory) is the Primary memory of the computer.

Read Also – What is RAM with their Types and Examples

Function of Processing Devices

In the Computer system, processing devices process all coded data that is inputted by the users through input devices such as mouse, keyboard, trackball, etc.

After processing, these data is converted into useful information and then transferred to the output devices like as monitor, speaker, printer, etc.

First of all, data is fetched from the input devices passes via an intermediate level before output on the suitable output devices.

Such as, Central Processing Unit (CPU) receives the input data and executes the mandatory processing including calculations, and stores it on the computer’s memory.


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