What is Hub in Network: Types, Working, Advantages, and Disadvantages

What is Hub in Network: Types, Working, Advantages, and Disadvantages

What is Network Hub

Definition: The hub is used in the networking for making connection with multiple devices over the network. So it is known as “Network Hub“. It helps to connect various devices in the LAN network. Hub acts as central station because all devices are connected via hub in the network connection. It has many ports, and if a packet reaches at one port then it is copied so all other ports are able to see those packets.  So, it provides the help if any one port of the hub gets halt.

Network hub does not contain any routing table that is used for sending all information as well as broadcast all network data every connection.


Today, several hubs have capability to recognize many network issues, error, and bugs such as collision.

Types of Hub

There are three different types of hubs which are used in the computer networking; below explain each one –

Passive Hub:

  • Passive hubs have many connections slots for connecting wires which helps to create the physical network. These hubs do not should any effect on the performance, but it determines the several bugs and identifies the faulty hardware parts. These hubs obtain the packets on the port and then finally transmit to other ports.
  • Passive hubs have 10base-2 port and RJ-45 connectors which are linked with Local Area Network Advance passive hubs contain AUI ports which are linked as transceiver as per network design.
  • Passive hubs are not capable to manipulate or see all traffic that passes it, and it does not need any electrical power to perform any task.

Active Hub:

  • Active hubs enable with few extra features than passive hubs. This hub is capable to monitor the all data that send to other attached devices. It play a major role in between the all connected network hardware devices with the use of store technology, and it helps to determine all data which to be sent and take decision which packets to send firstly.
  • Active hubs have extra features to fix all lost packets and hold direction and distribute of other pending packets. It helps to amplify weak signal (which are received in the port) into stronger signal before its transmission to other ports.
  • If, any time connecting hardware device is playing poor performance over the network then it helps to convert into strong signal which are viewable by other network devices with passive hubs. It offers to continuity of service in the LAN network.
  • It provides some related diagnostic abilities in the LAN network. They will be capable to resync all packets and broadcast them again. Some cables are getting electromagnetic troubles and halt the packet from entering into destination port. They are capable to retime the port for slower delivery as well as error-prone connections.
  • It needs AC power to perform all tasks, and maintains the electronic components.

Intelligent Hub:

  • It has small size compare to passive and active hubs.They contain several management softwares which help to identify all issues in the network and fix them. It provides great performance for LAN network.
  • If, any problem is occurred with any physical devices then it is easily diagnosed and solution to those problems with using of management data which can be purified by hub.
  • Monitoring the centralized management tools, which help to expend network that work on the devices to search poor functioning devices.
  • It has higher transmission rate to various devices, and they have their standard unit for transmission rate as 10, 16, in the speed of 100Mbps to desktop.

Working of Hub

Network hubs works at physical layer of OSI model. Ethernet cable and plug are used in the network hub.

Hub play the role as centralized connection in between all network devices and manage data type, which is known as “Frames“. If frame is received, then it is broadcast to the port of targeted computer system, but after amplifying it.

All communication is divided into three parts, which is done between multiple hosts.

  • Unicast
  • Broadcast
  • Multicast

Unicast: Unicast communication is done in between from one device to further device.

Broadcast: In broadcast communication, one host communicates along with whole other host over the network.

Multicast: This multicast communication can be possible in between one host to further some other hosts.

So, you can say that hub is a broadcast method of the communication.

  • It is capable to work on Half-duplex way that means communication can be possible to single device at once or one side transmission is happened in a same time duration as well as other end only one node has right to receive data.
  • If, data or frame approach the port then hub try to copy this data and further transfer it to other nodes. It sends data to all devices which are linked with hub, instead of sending data to targeted device.
  • In this process, it does not fetch IP addresses as well as not able to filter data. The hub has not any information about where to transfer data as well as not able to identify best path to traverse too.
  • Due to this reason, to increase the traffic congestion while sending and receiving data over multiple devices.
  • For making connection in between one hub to other network hub, UTP or STP or coaxial cables are used.

Advantages of Hub

There are few benefits and features of network hub, such as –

  • It allows to all clients to make connection with the network so they are capable to share and conversations. Due to this, network protocol analyzer is used by hubs.
  • Hub works like for broadcast model, so it does not get any effect on the network performance.
  • Hub is cost effective as well as simplicity than switches, so they can save money.
  • Hub is able to make connection with different types of Medias as centralized hub.
  • Hubs help to extend the area of the network so easy to make communication.

Disadvantages of Hub

  • Hub can’t support collision domain as well as re-transmission of frames so due to this, to increase the probability of collision.
  • Hub can’t support communication in the full duplex mode so due to this, data can be send only at once given time duration.
  • Hub is not capable to support large network architecture like as token ring. If multiple devices are added then network gets degrade performance.
  • Hub doesn’t filter information so it sends data to all linked devices.
  • It is not capable to decrease the network traffic.
  • It has not any storage memory.
  • It doesn’t provide better data security.
  • Hub can’t offer dedicated bandwidth for each device, it is to share them. So, it gets more wastage of bandwidth.