What is Router: Definition, Functions, Uses | Types of Routers with Examples

What is Router: Definition, Functions, Uses | Types of Routers with Examples

What is Router in Networking

Definition: Router is a network hardware device that allows to make communication in between the internet and all devices which are linked to the internet in your house and office.

Router has responsible to receives, analyze, and forward the all data packets from the modem and transfer it to the destination point. After reaching the data packets, the router monitors the destination address; get to make consultation its routing table that take the decision which is the best route for transferring the data packets.


Example of Router

Router works like as a mail carrier that helps to broadcast the internet messages to other connected devices such as laptop, PC, printer, etc.

There are few popular companies that design the routers like as Cisco, 3Com, HP, Juniper, D-Link, Nortel, etc

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Functions of Routers

Here, we will spread the light on the several major functions of router; below explain each one –

  • To Make Segment: Routers play the major role to segment the internet network form internal network in the residencies area or business. Routers moves to all packets from internal network to the Internet. Primary function of router is to web traffic dedicated for internet outside to internet network as a safety concern. It also helps to ignore the damage of data from a data packet that is flowing to wrong network.
  • To Assign IP Address: IP (Internet Protocol) is very necessary element for every computer system because the IP address means that which address that is assigned to the computer over the network. With the help of IP, all communication packets are sending and received over the network.  Dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP) allows to IP address to each computer that is linked to network. Most routers are enabled with DHCP protocol over the internet that is used for home and office small types of networks.
  • As a Firewall: Firewall helps to provide protection from intruders and malicious users over the internal networks. Firewall allows to get blockage of unauthorized or unwanted traffic. Firewall is software that is installed on each computer over the network, but routers are identified over the internet along with firewall firmware and software.
  • To Share Resources: Routers also help to many users for sharing resources like as faxes, scanners, printers, and file folders on the drives which are located on remotely. Printers and faxes can be properly configured on the router by skilled network administrator for using the entire organization through computer network. There are not need to install the printer for every user over the network, so it helps to save extra money and space for placing the printer. All files and folders that is stored on the user’s hard drive can be shared over entire network without getting to print or hard copies. Due to this, to save extra company funding and resources, and so employees are able to perform their functions quickly while locating remote geographic locations.

Uses of Routers

Router is used for getting to fulfill four purposes; like as –

  • First, to make ensure that data is flowing with correct destination, like as uses sends the emails to correct internet provider and recipient.
  • Second, Routers provide the protection from unwanted data, like as enlarge file is distributed to each machines over the network and improve the network performance.
  • Third, router plays the role as a buffer in between the modem and network, and it also allows the software security to diminish the risk of viruses or other malware.
  • Four, to share the information with other connecting routers in the networking.

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Types of Router

There are different types of routers with their functionality; below explain each one –

  • Wired Router
  • Wireless router
  • Virtual Router
  • Core Rout
  • B-Router
  • Edge Router
  • Subscriber Edge Router
  • Inter-provider Border Router

Wired Router

Wired routers are available in the market as the box shaped that can be made connection with computer system through Ethernet cable or wired connectivity. These routers are mostly used for home and small types of offices. It contains the separate Wi-Fi access point, and it is more useful for those users who want to make connection to the Wi-Fi enabled phones as well as they can also use VIOP (voice-over IP technology).

For security purpose, these wired routers commonly use the stateful packet inspection (SPI) firewalls, while for offerring the interaction in between the computers with in community, as well as router also uses the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). These types of router are supportable to network address translation (NAT) technology, because this technology helps to link several computers to router with wired router to share single Internet Protocol (IP) address.

For Example: ADSL modem consists the two jacks for getting the connection to phones and Ethernet.

Wireless Router

Wireless routers are also like as wired network, and these routers are linked directly to modem via cable for getting internet data packets. Wireless router broadcasts the data packets with the help of one or multiple antennas. It obtains the data packets into binary format like as (0s and 1s), that allows to convert them into radio signals and the antennae transmit wirelessly. With using of wireless receiver, computer systems are able to receive these radio signals and again convert them into binary format.

For allowing the security to WLAN, wirelesses routers mostly employ wireless media access control (MAC) address filtering and Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)

Virtual Router

Virtual router does not work as wireless router because it is used as default router for the computer system for sharing the network. This router performs all functions with using of the   Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) that plays the all roles actively when primary and physical router get to halt or becomes disabled mode.

They can deliver many flexibility compare to physical devices, and they can be helped out to scale for growing the business. These routers also get to help for remote branches and running on your network with more quickly.

Core Routers

Core routers are either wired or wireless which help to distribute data packets with in networks, unlike multiple networks. They are introduced as a backbone of your network and capable to transfer huge data, and help to get improve the performance of your router.

Core router can support several telecommunication interfaces with higher speed and usage data in the core internet, and it is capable to forward IP packets at the full speed on all of them.


B-router has both features of bridge and router. It is capable to transmit data in between the networks like as a Bridge, and as a router, it can also find optimal path for transferring data within a network to individual systems.

Edge Router

Edge Routers are either wired or wireless router which allows to distribute all data packets in between one or more networks, unlike within same network. Edge routers are installed at the edge of the network, and link to Internet service providers (ISPs) or other organizations’ networks. Edge router is configured to external protocol such as BGP (Border gateway protocol) to another BGP of other ISP network.

Subscriber Edge Router

Subscriber edge router plays the role as end user organization, and it is configured to broadcast external BGP to its provider’s AS.

Inter-provider Border Router

These types of routers are used for getting to interconnect ISPs, and they are BGP speaking router that helps to maintains BP sessions with another BGP speaking routers.

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